This article concludes this special issue on the European Union as international mediator that set out to advance our theoretical and empirical knowledge about EU mediation. Providing a comprehensive reflection of EU mediation activities and the diverse settings where they take place, this concluding article identifies some connection points between the articles and discusses their findings on the motives/drivers, roles/strategies, effectiveness and institutional capacities of EU mediation. It discusses the implications of these findings for policymaking, focusing on the conditions for EU mediation effectiveness, the advantages of the multi-layered nature of EU mediation and the need for flexible adaptation of mediation strategies. Finally, the article sets the scene for future research endeavors on EU mediation by identifying three future research avenues that focus on the politics, domestic effects and comparative advantage of the EU as international mediator.
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