Since its formation in 1945, UNESCO has established itself at the centre of the international debate on culture. In general, the forum has been a progressive force in the development of cultural policy. However, in spite of what has been a successful tenure by the body, its efforts are hampered by an unclear portrayal of culture. The research asks if the situation is compatible with the principle of legal clarity. Focusing on the protection of cultural identity, the research takes the form of an historical study of UNESCO’s work on culture. The research also explores the implications of the situation for international human rights law.