Culture-specific and individual affective factors in professional communication

in International Review of Pragmatics
Accès limité
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



In this paper we set out to consider the place of the English language in globalised communities. The hegemony, which English enjoys, has ramifications for how it is taught, how and why it is learned and how it is used. We argue that there is a need to consider more socio-cultural and individual factors in the learning and use of English as a lingua franca as these factors constitute crucial aids to successful cross-cultural interactions in professional environments. The latest research on lingua franca English (LFE) (Firth & Wagner, 1997; Kramsch, 2002; Larsen-Freeman, 2002; Block, 2003; House, 2003; Canagarajah, 2006a; Lantolf & Thorne, 2006; Atkinson, Churchill, Nishino & Okada, 2007) confirms our position since it reveals what has always been the experience of multilingual speakers, i.e., “Language learning and use succeed through performance strategies, situational resources, and social negotiations in fluid communicative contexts. Proficiency is therefore practice-based, adaptive, and emergent” (Canagarajah, 2007: 923).

Culture-specific and individual affective factors in professional communication

in International Review of Pragmatics



  • Al-Saraj Taghreed Mohammed. 2011. Exploring Foreign Language Anxiety in Saudi Arabia: A Study of Female English as Foreign Language College Students. London: University of London.

  • Atkinson Dwight Eton Churchill Takako Nishino and Hanako Okada. 2007. Alignment and interaction in a sociocognitive approach in second language acquisition. Modern Language Journal 91: 169–188.

  • Arnaiz Patricia and Félix Guillén. 2012. Foreign language anxiety in a Spanish university setting: Interpersonal differences. Revista de Psicodidáctica 17: 5–26.

  • Arnold John. 2007. Self-perceived employability: development and validation of a scale. Personnel Review 36: 23–41.

  • Barry Dave. 1992. Dave Barry Does Japan. New York: Fawcett Columbine.

  • Block David. 2003. The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

  • Bolton Kinsley. 2003. Chinese Englishes: A Sociolinguistic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Canagarajah Suresh. 2006a. Toward a writing pedagogy of shuttling between languages: Learning from multilingual writers. College English 68: 589–604.

  • Canagarajah Suresh. 2007. Lingua franca English multilingual communities and language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal 91: 923–939.

  • Casado Miguel & Mary Dereshiwsky. 2001. Foreign language anxiety of university students. College Student Journal 35: 539–549.

  • Chen Zhaohui Matthew K.O. Lee & Christy M.K. Cheung. 2005. Acceptance of Internet-based learning medium: the role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Information & Management 42: 1095–1104.

  • Cheng Yuh Elaine K. Horwitz & Diane L. Schallert. 1999. Language anxiety: Differentiating writing and speaking components. Language Learning 49: 417–446.

  • Clément Richard. 1986. Second language proficiency and acculturation: An investigation of the effects of language status and individual characteristics. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 5: 271–290.

  • Clément Richard Zoltán Dörnyei & Kimberly A. Noels. 1994. Motivation self-confidence and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning 44: 417–448.

  • Clément Richard Peter D. MacIntyre Zoltán Dörnyei & Kimberly A. Noels. 1998. Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a second language: a situational model of second language confidence and affiliation. Modern Language Journal 82: 545–562.

  • Dörnyei Zoltán. 2012. Motivation in Language Learning. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

  • Dörnyei Zoltán Kata Csizér & Nóra Németh. 2006. Motivation Language Attitudes and Globalisation: A Hungarian Perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

  • Dörnyei Zoltán. 2005. The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Dörnyei Zoltán. 1998. Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching 31: 117–135.

  • English First. 2015. “English Proficiency Index”.

  • English First. 2016. “English Proficiency Index”.

  • Ehrman Madeline Betty Leaver and Rebecca Oxford. 2003. A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. System 31: 313–330.

  • Ehrman Madeline. 1996. Understanding Second Language Learning Difficulties. New York: SAGE.

  • Ellis Rod. 1994. The Study of Second Language Acquisition (2nd edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Firth Alan & Johannes Wagner. 1997. On discourse communication and (some) fundamental concepts in SLA research. Modern Language Journal 81: 285–300.

  • Gardner Robert C. and Peter D. MacIntyre. 1993. On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning 43: 157–194.

  • Giddens Anthony. 1999. Modernity and self-Identity: Tribulations of the self. In A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (eds) The Discourse Reader 415–427. London. Routledge.

  • Gudykunst William B. Ge Gao & Arlene Franklyn-Stokes. 1996. Self-monitoring and concern for social appropriateness in China and England. In J. Pandey & D. Sinha (eds.) Asian Contributions to Cross-cultural Psychology 255–267. New Delhi: SAGE.

  • Gudykunst William B. Stella Ting-Toomey & Elisabeth Chua. 1988. Culture and Interpersonal Communication. Newbury Park CA: SAGE.

  • Hofstede Geert. 1997. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • House Juliane. 2003. English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism? Journal of Sociolinguistics 7: 556–578.

  • Horwitz Elaine K. Michael B. Horwitz and Joann Cope. 1986. Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal 70: 125–132.

  • Horwitz Elaine K. 2001. Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 21: 112–126.

  • Horwitz Elaine K. 2007. Becoming a Language Teacher: A Practical Guide to Second Language Learning and Teaching. Hong Kong: Pearson.

  • Hsu Francis L.K. 1981. Americans and Chinese: Passages to Differences (3rd edition). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

  • Hsu Francis L.K. 1983. Rugged Individualism Reconsidered: Essays in Psychological Anthropology. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

  • Hsu Francis L.K. 1985. The self in cross-cultural perspective. In A.J. Marsella G. DeVos & F.L.K. Hsu (eds) Culture and Self: Asian and Western perspectives 24–55. New York: Tavistock Publications.

  • Kaplan Robert B. 1966. Cultural thought patterns in inter-cultural education. Language Learning 16: 1–20.

  • Kramsch Caire. 2002. Introduction: How can we tell the dancer from the dance? In C. Kramsch. (ed.) Language Acquisition and Language Socialization: Ecological Perspectives 1–30. London: Continuum.

  • Krashen Stephen. 1985. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman.

  • Lafaye Beverley E. & Sanae Tsuda. 2002. Attitudes towards English language learning in higher education in Japan and the place of English in Japanese society. Intercultural Communication Studies 9: 145–162.

  • Lantolf James P. & Steven F. Thorne. 2006. Sociocultural Theory and the Sociogenesis of Second Language Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Larsen-Freeman Diane. 2002. Language acquisition and language use from a chaos/complexity theory perspective. In C. Kramsch (ed.) Language Acquisition and Language Socialization: Ecological Perspectives 33–46. London: Continuum.

  • Lehman Iga M. 2014a. The role of identity in student writing in English and in Polish. Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny III: 601–611.

  • Levine Donald N. 1985. The Flight from Ambiguity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • MacIntyre Peter D. 2002. Motivation anxiety and emotion in second language acquisition. In P. Robinson (ed.) Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition 45–68. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • MacIntyre Peter D. Richard Clément Zoltán Dörnyei & Kimberly A. Noels. 1998. Conceptualising willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. Modern Language Journal 82: 545–562.

  • Markus Hazel Rose & Shinobu Kitayama. 1991. Cultures and the self: Implications for cognition emotion and motivation. Psychological Review 98: 224–253.

  • Matsuoka Rieko. 2009. Japanese College Students’ Willingness to Communicate in English. Kohn: Lambert Academic Publishing.

  • McCroskey James C. 1997. Willingness to communicate communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence: Conceptualizations and perspectives. Communication Quarterly 3: 127–137.

  • Mercer Sarah. 2011. Towards an Understanding of Language Learner Self-concept. London: Springer.

  • Norton Bonney & Carolyn McKinney. 2011. An identity approach to second language acquisition. In D. Atkinson (ed.) Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition 73–94. New York: Routledge.

  • Norton Bonney. 2000. Identity and Language Learning. Extending the Conversation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

  • Norton Bonney. 1997. Language identity and the ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly 31: 409–429.

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2012. Programme for International Student Assessment. PISA.

  • Oxford Rebecca L. 2005. Anxiety and the language learner: New insights. In J. Arnold (ed.) Affect in Language Learning 58–67 Cambridge MA: Cambridge University Press.

  • Pekerti Andre A. 2001. Influence of Culture on Communication: An Empirical Test and Theoretical Refinement of the High- and Low-context Dimension. PhD dissertation University of Auckland.

  • Pillay Venashri. 2006. Culture. Exploring the river. In M. LeBaron and V. Pillay (eds.) Conflict Across Cultures: A Unique Experience of Bridging Experiences 25–56 Boston: Intercultural Press.

  • Sanches-Burks Jeffrey Fiona Lee Incheol Choi Richard Nisbett Shuming Zhao & Jasook Koo. 2003. Conversing across cultures: East-West communication styles in work and non-work contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85: 363–372.

  • Scollon Ron Suzanne Wong Scollon & Rodney H. Jones. 2012. Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach (3rd edition). London: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Shavelson Richard J. Judith J. Hubner & George C. Stanton. 1976. Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research 46: 407–441.

  • Spolsky Bernard. 1989. Conditions for Second Language Learning: Introduction to a General Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Tsui Amy. 1996. Reticence and anxiety in second language learning. In K. Bailey & D. Nunan (eds.) Voices from the Language Classroom: Qualitative Research in Second Language Education 338–355. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Ushioda Ema & Zoltán Dörnyei. 2012. Motivation. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition 396–409. New York: Routledge.

  • Ushioda Ema. 2012. Motivation. In A. Burns and J. Richards (eds.) The Cambridge Guide to Pedagogy and Practice in Second Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Ushioda Ema & Zoltán Dörnyei. 2009. Motivation language identities and the L2 self: A theoretical overview. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (eds.) Motivation Language Identity and the L2. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

  • Ushioda Ema. 2006. Language motivation in a reconfigured Europe: Access identity autonomy. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 27: 148–161.

  • Warden Clyde A. & Hsiu J. Lin. 2000. Existence of integrative motivation in an Asian EFL setting. Foreign Language Annals 10: 535–545.

  • Wenger Etienne. 2000. Communities of practice and social learning systems: The career of a concept. Organisation 7: 225–246.

  • Yashima Tomoko Lori Zenuk-Nishide & Kazuaki Shimizu. 2004. The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning 54: 119–152.

  • Yashima Tomoko. 2002. Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal 86: 54–66.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 136 136 24
Full Text Views 114 114 2
PDF Downloads 8 8 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0