Specimens identified as Caryocolum proxima (Haworth, 1828) from Scandinavia and the U.S.S.R. have proved to be misidentified and without an available name. This species is described as Caryocolum blandelloides n.sp. and is differentiated from C. blandella (Douglas, 1852), C. proxima (Haworth, 1828), C. blandulella (Tutt, 1887), C. alsinella (Zeller, 1868), C. marmorea (Haworth, 1828), C. junctella (Douglas, 1851), C. albifasciella (Toll, 1936) and C. kroesmanniella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854). C. proxima, recorded from Denmark, is new to the Scandinavian fauna. C. semidecandriella (Tutt, 1887) is a synonym of C. alsinella Zell. (n.syn.), and C. falellum Piskunov, 1975 is a synonym of C. albifasciella Toll (n.syn.). Gelechia manniella Zeller, 1839 the identity of which has been obscure, is placed in synonymy with C. marmorea (Hw.), and a lectotype of the former is designated. A lectotype of Phthorimaea subvicinella Hackman, 1946, is designated. The adults of the nine species are figured as are the male and female genitalia of the five first mentioned species; whereas references to figures of the genitalia are given for the rest. Information on host plants, life histories and collection methods is given, and the nomenclature of the involved species is discussed.