Eighteen species of Sciomyzidae are recorded from Israel, all but two for the first time. Three species are described as new: Pherbellia hermonensis. P. pninae, and P. priscillae. Tetanoceraformosa Loew is transferred from Trypetoptera Hendel to Euthycera Latreille. Keys for the identification of the genera of the Near East and for the species in Israel are included, and the heads and wings are illustrated for each Israeli species. Localities in Israel and the general distribution are given for each species. The distribution of Sciomyzidae in the countries around the eastern end of the Mediterranean is summarized in a chart. The sciomyzid fauna of Israel is primarily a subtraction element of the Anatolian fauna. Data on the distribution of Sciomyzidae in the Levant and within Israel are used to suggest that inability of adult Sciomyzidae to cross desert areas is the main reason for the separation of the Palearctic and Ethiopian faunas at their Eastern contacts.