The Anthomyiidae (root-maggot flies) of the Canaries are revised. Altogether 24 species in 9 genera are recorded. Four species are described as new, viz. Pegomya canariensis, Anthomyia confusanea, Leucophora canariensis and L. subsponsa. In addition, Pegomya lateropunctata sp. n. is described from Madeira. Pegomya suaedivora Hering (type locality: France) is synonymized with P. suaedae Hering (syn. n.). Delia cilitarsis Hennig is regarded a distinct species, not a subspecies of D. platura (Meigen). A key to males and females is provided. Local distribution of the species, both ecological and geographical, is considered, and the anthomyiid fauna of the other Macaronesian archipelagos is reviewed. The origin of the Canarian anthomyiid fauna is discussed. The species all seem to be descended from the fauna of the Mediterranean subregion and can be regarded either as (1) introduced, (2) indigenous, or (3) endemic to the Canaries. Apparently endemic Canarian species are Pegomya canariensis sp. n., P. vittithorax (Stein), Hylemya latevittata Stein, Leucophora canariensis sp. n., Delia canariensis Hennig and D. cilitarsis Hennig.