The European species of the Nepticula ruficapitella group are revised on the basis of authentic material. Four new species, svenssoni, dorsiguttella, roborella and eberhardi, are established. Three species, atricapitella Hw., ruficapitella Hw. and samiatella Z., formerly not satisfactorily defined, are redescribed. N. cerricolella Klim. is reduced to a subspecies of basiguttella Hein. N. ilicivora Peyer. is considered synonymous with the older name suberivora Stt. Five lectotypes are designated, some of these specimens have previously been labelled "Type" or "Lectotype" but as far as known without publication. These lectotypes are here published in accordance with the rules of zoological nomenclature. A list of the Scandinavian and British Nepticulidae was compiled and the species are arranged into groups consisting of allied species. The definition of Stigmella Schrank 1802 is disagreeing with the structural characters distinguishing the family Nepticulidae. Consequently, the generic name Stigmella has to be rejected and the younger but better known and satisfactorily defined name Nepticula Heyden I843 has been used in this paper.