A revision of the species of Ectobius Stephens closely related to E. sylvestris (Poda) (= Sylvestris Group) is presented. The characters defining the Sylvestris Group are discussed, and it is pointed out that the group extensively conforms with a major part of the species belonging to the genus Phyllodromica Fieber. Evidence is provided that Ectobius and Phyllodromica are paraphyletic groups. Five species are recognized, viz. E. sylvestris, E. lucidus (Hagenbach) (= fernandesi Harz), E. brunneri Seoane, E. eckerleini Harz, and E. pyrenaícus, a species described as new from the Pyrenees. The species chopardi Fernandes, currently recognized in Phyllodromica, is also treated as it shows great similarity with E. pyrenaicus sp. n.