The taxonomic status and range of Chrysonotomyia Ashmead and Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov are discussed. The seven Palearctic species of Chrysonotomyia are reviewed and a key to the species is presented. The Palearctic species of Neochrysocharis are revised, and a key to the species is given. Twenty species are recognized. Two of the species are described as new: acuminata and ambitiosa, both from Greece. Six new synonyms are suggested: Neochrysocharis badghysi Ryabtschinsky, N. rezniki Ryabtschinsky = N. albiscapus Erdös; N. aeneicrus Erdös = N. clinias (Walker); Chrysocharis obscuripes Förster, N. trifolii Erdös = N. formosa (Westwood); N. graminearum Szelényi & Szöcs = Chrysocharis chlora Graham. The species Neochrysocharis immaculata Kurdjumov previously synonymized with N. aratus (Walker), and later re-erected, is again put as synonym under aratus. Five new combinations are suggested: Achrysocharella chlorogaster Erdös, A. sericea Erdös, Chrysonotomyia longiventris Askew, Closterocerusformosus Westwood, all four to Neochrysocharis; Neochrysocharis chlora (originally in Chrysocharis) is transferred back to Chrysocharis. Lectotypes are designated for Entedon lanassa Walker, Neochrysocharis aeneicrus, N. albiscapus, N. cuprifrons Erdös, N. iris Erdös and Chrysocharis obscuripes. Some changes to update the Entedontinae from the key in Peck et al. (1964) are suggested.