This study updates our knowledge of the Tephritidae of the Canary Islands. The 30 recorded species are keyed and briefly discussed. Tephritis luteipes sp. n. is described and Trupanea tubulata Munro is recorded for the first time from the Canary Islands. Three records are regarded as erroneous: Aciura coryli (Rossi), Dectodesis augur (Frauenfeld) and Paroxyna absinthii (Fabricius). Tephritis reticulata Becker, T. duplex Becker and Paroxyna multimaculosa Dirlbek & Dirlbek are transferred to Campiglossa (combs. n.). The following new synonymies are proposed (junior synonyms in parantheses): Capitites ramulosa (Loew) (= Urellia perfecta Becker), Campiglossa duplex (Becker) (=Paroxyna aequalis Hering), Campiglossa reticulata (Becker) (=Tephritis occulta Becker), Oedaspis quinquefasciata Becker (= Oedaspis heringi Hendel), Tephritis praecox (Loew) (= Tephritis poecilura Loew). Lectotypes are designated for Paroxyna aequalis Hering, Tephritis reticulata Becker, Tetanocera walkeri Wollaston and Trypeta praecox Loew. Seven fruit fly species were reared for the first time, and 12 new fruit fly - plant relationships are mentioned. Furthermore Paroxyna martii (Becker) and Urelliosoma guimari (Becker) are recorded for the first time from Southern Spain and Tephritis praecox from Austria.