Andaeschna gen. n. is established for three neotropical species currently assigned to Aeshna (Aeshna s.str.) Fabricius: Andaeschna unicolor (Martin, 1908) comb. n., A. rufipes (Ris, 1918) comb. n., and A. andresi (Racenis, 1958) comb. n. (type species). A fourth species, Andaeschna timotocuica sp. n., is described from Venezuela. The male lectotype of A. unicolor is redescribed. Andaesehna shares some peculiar character states with the Old World species 'Anaciaeschna' isoceles (Müller, 1767), but a close phylogenetic relationship between the two can not be demonstrated convincingly, and the true generic affiliation of the latter is unknown.