All nominal species of European Helicopsyche are critically assessed. A neotype for H. shuttleworthi Siebold, 1856, the type species of Helicopsyche, is designated which fixes the name as a valid senior synonym of H. revelieri McLachlan, 1884 and H. corsica Vaillant, 1953. The senior synonym Helicopsyche helicifex (Allen, 1857) is suggested to replace H. sericea Hagen, 1864 and H. lusitanica McLachlan, 1884, and the senior synonym Helicopsyche crispata (Benoit, 1857) to replace H. agglutinans (Tassinari, 1858) and H. sperata McLachlan, 1876. Helicopsyche fannii Rougemont, 1879 is a nomen nudum. The females of Helicopsyche helicifex and H. megalochari Malicky, 1974 are described for the first time. The first keys to males and females of the European Helicopsyche are presented.