1 1K. Sattler, EMBRAPA, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados, P.O. Box 08223, 73301-970 Planaltina, DF, Brazil, Department of Entomology, The Natural History Muse- um, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K.
Ophiolechia gen. n., a Neotropical genus occurring in Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Argentina, is described and its systematic position is discussed together with some general aspects of gelechiid morphology. Two new generic combinations are introduced, twelve species are newly described and four further species are discussed but not named. Keys to the species are provided, based on the male and female genitalia, and the adults and their genitalia are described and illustrated.