The named Australian species of Nepticulidae are redescribed and illustrated. The genitalia of all but one species are described and illustrated, in most cases for the first time. Of the 16 species treated, 13 belong to the probably endemic genus Pectinivalva Scoble: P. caenodora (Meyrick), P. chalcitis (Meyrick), P. commoni Scoble, P. endocapna (Meyrick), P. gilva (Meyrick), P. melanotis (Meyrick), P. anazona (Meyrick), P. funeralis (Meyrick), P. libera (Meyrick), P. planetis (Meyrick), P. primigena (Meyrick), P. trepida (Meyrick) and P warburtonensis (Wilson). The remaining three are referable to the worldwide genus Stigmella Schrank: S. leucargyra (Meyrick), S. phyllanthina (Meyrick) and S. symmora (Meyrick). Pectinivalva is provisionally split into two informal species groups (the 'commoni' group and the 'funeralis' group), and a diagnosis is provided for these. Brief details of biology are given where known.