Covered are 30 species of Ethiopian Ematheudes, including 23 new species: E. convexus, E. crenulatus, E. dewittei, E. elysium, E. erectus, E. forficatus, E. hamatus, E. hispidus, E. kenyaensis, E. lusingensis, E. maculescens, E. megacantha, E. michaelshafferi, E. natalensis, E. pollex, E. quintuplex, E. setigera, E. sinuosus, E. strictus, E. triangularus, E. trimaculosus, E. togoensis, E. toxalis. Brief treatment is also given to the type species, the Palearctic Chilo punctellus Treitschke. The Asian Prnavitheudes Amsel, 1961 (type species: P. persicella Amsel) is synonymized with Ematheudes and Patna rhizolineata Bradley, 1980 is transferred to Ematheudes. The latter species is the only Ematheudes for which a host plant is known, the larvae having been reared from rhizomes of Sorghum halepense in Pakistan. Commotria erythrograpta Hampson is synonymized with E. neurias (Hampson); Patna venatella Hampson is synonymized with E. rhodochroa (Hampson); E. lentistrigulis Hampson is synonymized with E. straminella Snellen. Photographs of wing patterns are provided for 28 species, of male genitalia for all 30 species, and of female genitalia for 5 species. All these structures are also illustrated for the type species, E. punctellus. A cladistic analysis using Hennig86 yielded one tree with a consistency index of 28. A key to the species is provided.