A new supplemented diagnosis of Heteraphorura Bagnall, 1948 is provided. The genus Japonychiurus Yosii, 1996 is a junior synonym of Heteraphorura. Two new species are described: H. justynae sp. n. and H. intricata sp. n. H. subtenuis (Folsom, 1917), H. tala (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980), H. bima (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980), H. cassa (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980) are redescribed on the basis of types and new materials. An identification key to the North American members of the genus is given.