The first fossil Chironomid species in Dominican amber, Ablabesmyia electrohispaniolana, sp. n. is described. Additionally, a first overview on the proportions of three subfamilies in this fossil chironomid fauna is given. This percent composition is compared with the chironomid fauna in the tropical lowlands of South America and with the fauna of Andean-Patagonian flowing waters. The data presented and knowledge on today's chironomid fauna is not detailed enough to draw new conclusions about the ancient amber forest, but it is shown how chironomids in Dominican amber can contribute in reconstructing palaeoenvironments even at subfamilial level.