The phylogeny of the main groups of the Sciaroidea, including the fossil Antefungivoridae, Archizelmiridae, Mesosciophilidae, Pleciofungivoridae, Pleciomimidae, Protopleciidae and Bolitophilidae: Mangasinae, and an extant new taxon, was studied by parsimony analysis. Two cladistic analyses of seventy-eight morphological characters from adults were made. One analysis, with forty-one extant taxa in the ingroup and the other, with the addition of twelve fossil taxa, both produced two most parsimonious cladograms. The phylogenetic hypotheses obtained differed from each other, and in part also to a great extent from previous ones although most of the traditionally recognized groups appeared monophyletic, including the speciose Cecidomyiidae and Sciaridae. The Cecidomyiidae (fossil analysis) or the Keroplatidae-Ditomyiidae (extant analysis) appeared as the sister-group of the rest of the Sciaroidea. Following on from these analyses, we propose emending the current Sciaridae to include the following subfamilies: Archizelmirinae stat. n., Rangomaraminae stat. n., Sciarinae, Sciarosominae subfam. n. and Sciarotrichinae subfam. n. A new taxon from Namibia, Sciarotricha biloba gen. n., sp. n. is described, and, according to the phylogenetic analysis, is placed in the Sciaridae (Sciarotrichinae). The sister-group of the Sciaridae as newly defined is the Mycetophilidae group, in the extant analysis including the Mycetophilidae, Manotidae, Lygistorrhinidae, Pterogymnus and Sciaropota, and in the fossil analysis even including the Mesosciophilidae and the Ohakunea group (Ohakunea + Colonomyia).