A new subfamily, Nevaniinae Zhang & Rasnitsyn, subfam. n., is established and assigned to Praeaulacidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea). It only comprises one genus, the type Nevania Zhang & Rasnitsyn, gen. n., consisting of six species: N. robusta Zhang & Rasnitsyn, sp. n., N. exquisita Zhang & Rasnitsyn, sp. n., N. malleata Zhang & Rasnitsyn, sp. n., N. ferocula Zhang & Rasnitsyn, sp. n., N. retenta Zhang & Rasnitsyn, sp. n., and N. delicata Zhang & Rasnitsyn, sp. n., from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou in Inner Mongolia, China. Analyses show that Nevaniinae has a combination of ancestral and derived characters and additionally a few autapomorphies, and probably represents an early clade of the Praeaulacidae, and that the Evanioidea has an ancestor at least as venationally plesiomorphic as basal Ephialtitidae. N. delicata, possessing many more putatively plesiomorphic characters than its congeners, probably occupies the most basal position of the Nevania clade. Characteristics shown by Nevania suggest that these wasps were parasitoids of wood-boring insects.