A cladistic analysis of the subfamily Melolonthinae was undertaken using 48 taxa and 47 external morphology and male and female genitalia characters. Serica brunna and Pachydema hirticollis were chosen as outgroups. The aim of the present study is to assess supraspecific relationships and to test the monophyly of Melolonthinae and included tribes, genera and subgenera. A general parsimony heuristic search was used to find the most parsimonious trees. Successive character weighting was used to assess the internal consistency of the data. The robustness of the clades was assessed with Bootstrap and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Melolonthinae is found to be a non-monophyletic group, whereas the monophyly of Holotrichia, Trichesthes, Phyllophaga and its subgenera, is here questioned.