Cladistic analysis and synopsis of Chloropepla Stål (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) with the description of three new species

in Insect Systematics & Evolution
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The present work brings together the dispersed information on the Neotropical genus Chloropepla. It was established in 1867 by Stål and reviewed in 1968 by Grazia; since the revision, ten new species have been added. In this work a cladistic analysis of the species of Chloropepla is presented. The monophyly of the genus was confirmed. Three monophyletic groups of species were identified: clade A (C. rideri sp.n., C. paveli, C. vigens, C. luteipennis), clade B (C. costaricensis sp.n., C. aurea and C. pirani) and clade C (C. dollingi, C. tucuriuensis, C. stysi, C. caxiuanensis sp.n. and C. rolstoni). An extended description of the genus and diagnoses for the species are provided. Three new species from Costa Rica, Venezuela and Brazil are described extending the northern distribution of the genus into Central America. A key to the species is also provided.

Cladistic analysis and synopsis of Chloropepla Stål (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) with the description of three new species

in Insect Systematics & Evolution

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References

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Figures

  • View in gallery

    Characters 0–4. (A, B) Head dorsal view. (A) Chloropepla vigens; (B) Mayrinia curvidens. (C–E) Humeral angles. (C) C. vigens; (D) C. aurea; (E) C. paveli. Abbreviations: j, juga; cl, clypeus. Scale bar = 1 mm.

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    Characters 6–8. (A, B) Ostiolar ruga (A) Mayrinia curvidens; (B) Chloropepla vigens. (C, D) Metasternum carina (C) M. curvidens; (D) C. vigens. (E–G) Femur apical spine (E) C. paveli; (F) C. stysi; (G) C. vigens. Scale bar = 1 mm.

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    Characters 9–15. (A–C) Female external genitalia: (A) Chloropepla vigens; (B) C. tucuruiensis; (C) C. stysi. (D–G) Female internal genitalia: (D) C. vigens; (E) C. rolstoni; (F) Loxa deducta; (G) C. aurea. (H, I) Capsula seminalis: (H) C. vigens; (I) C. stysi. Abbreviation: paf, posterior annular flange. Scale bar = 1 mm.

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    Characters 16–22, 28. (A–F) Pygophore dorsal view: (A, B) Chloropepla aurea; (C) C. caxiuanensis sp.n.; (D) C. stysi; (E) C. caxiuanensis sp.n.; (F) Loxa deducta. (G, H) Pygophore ventral view: (G) C. vigens; (H) C. caxiuanensis sp.n. (I) Pygophore posterior view, C. caxiuanensis sp.n. (J–L) Pygophore ventral wall (internal view): (J) Mayrinia curvidens; (L) Rhyncholepta grandicallosa. Scale bar = 1 mm. This figure is published in colour in the online version of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Characters 24–28. (A) Pygophore ventral-posterior view, Chloropepla aurea. (B, C) Male segment X: (B) C. caxiuanensis sp.n.; (C) C. vigens. (D) Paramere, Loxa deducta. (E) Pygophore dorsal view, C. vigens. Scale bars: A = 0.5 mm, B–D = 1 mm. This figure is published in colour in the online version of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Characters 29–36. (A–C) Paramere, lateral view: (A) Mayrinia curvidens; (B) Chloropepla caxiuanensis sp.n.; (C) C. aurea. (D–G) Phallus: (D) C.stysi, posterior view; (E) C. stysi; anterior view; (F) Loxa deducta, posterior view; (G) C. vigens, lateral view; (H) Rhyncholepta grandicallosa, lateral view. Scale bars: A, B, D–G = 1 mm, C = 0.5 mm. This figure is published in colour in the online version of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Strict consensus cladogram of Chloropepla species (open circles: homoplastic synapomorphies; filled circles: uniquely derived synapomorphies; numbers in squares: Bremer support).

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    Genitalia. (A, B) Chloropepla paveli: (A) pygophore, dorsal view; (B) female plates. (C, D) C. lenti: (C) pygophore, dorsal view; (D) female plates. (E) C. rolstoni, pygophore, dorsal view. (F) C. dollingi, pygophore, ventral view. (G) C. tucuruiensis, pygophore, ventral view. Abbreviations: dr, dorsal rim; gc8, gonocoxites 8; gc9, gonocoxites 9; hy, hypandrium; la8, laterotegites 8; la9, laterotergites 9; mp, marginal process of dorsal rim; vps, ventral process of the surface of hypandrium; pa, paramere; vp, ventral process of hypandrium; vr, ventral rim; X, segment X. Scale bars: A–C, E, F = 1 mm, D, G = 2 mm.

  • View in gallery

    Genitalia. (A, B) Chloropepla tucuruiensis: (A) pygophore, dorsal view; (B) female plates. (C, D) C. stysi: (C) pygophore, ventral view; (D) pygophore, dorsal view. (E, F) C. vigens: (E) female plates; (F) pygophore, dorsal view. Abbreviations: dr, dorsal rim, gc8, gonocoxites 8, gc9, gonocoxites 9, hy, hypandrium, la8, laterotegites 8, la9, laterotergites 9, mp, marginal process of dorsal rim, vps, ventral process of the surface of hypandrium, pa, paramere, vp, ventral process of hypandrium, vr, ventral rim, X, segment X. Scale bars: C, D, F = 1 mm, A, B, E = 2 mm.

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    Chloropepla new species facies: (A) C. rideri sp.n.; (B) C. costaricensis sp.n.; (C) C. caxiuanensis sp.n. Scale bar = 1 mm. This figure is published in colour in the online version of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Chloropepla rideri sp.n., male genitalia: (A, B) Pygophore: (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view; (C) left paramere, lateral view; (D–F) Phallus: (D) posterior view; (E) lateral view; (F) anterior view. Abbreviations: aa, articulatory apparatus; cj, conjunctiva; dr, dorsal rim; epr, elongated process of hypandrium; hy, hypandrium; mp, marginal process of dorsal rim; pa, paramere; pht, phallotheca; ppht1, processus phallothecae 1; ppht2, processus phallothecae 2; ve, vesica; vp, vesica collar process; vr, ventral rim; vwhy, ventral wall of hypandrium; X, segment X. Scale bars: A, B = 1 mm, C–F = 0.5 mm.

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    Chloropepla rideri sp.n., female external and internal genitalia: (A) genital plates; (B) gonocoxites and gonapophyses of ninth segment and ectodermal genital ducts. Abbreviations: aac, anterior annular crest; ch, chitinellipsen; cs, capsula seminalis; g9, gonapophyses 9; gc8, gonocoxites 8; gc9, gonocoxites 9; la8, laterotergites 8; la9, laterotergites 9; pac, posterior annular crest; pco, pars communis; pi, pars intermedialis; tvi, thickening of vaginal intima; X, segment X. Scale bars = 1 mm.

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    Chloropepla paveli female internal genitalia. Abbreviations: aaf, anterior annular flange; ch, chitinellipsen; cs, capsula seminalis; dr, ductus receptaculi; g9, gonapophyses 9; gc9, gonocoxites 9; paf, posterior annular flange; pco, pars communis; pi, pars intermedialis; tvi, tickening of vaginal intima. Scale bar = 1 mm.

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    Chloropepla luteipennis. (A) genital plates; (B) female holotype facies; (C) holotype labels. This figure is published in colour in the online version of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Chloropepla costaricensis sp.n., male external and internal genitalia: (A, B) Pygophore: (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view. Abbreviations: dr, dorsal rim; hy, hypandrium; lpr, lateral process of hypandrium; mp, marginal process of dorsal rim; pa, paramere; pan, posterolateral angle of pygophore; ppr, posterior process of hypandrium; vr, ventral rim; vw, ventral wall of hypandrium; X, segment X. Scale bars = 1 mm.

  • View in gallery

    Chloropepla costaricensis sp.n., female external and internal genitalia: (A) genital plates; (B) gonocoxites and gonapophyses of ninth segment and ectodermal genital ducts. Abbreviations: aac, anterior annular crest; cs, capsula seminalis; ch, chitinellipsen; g9, gonapophyses 9; gc8, gonocoxites 8; gc9, gonocoxites 9; la8, laterotergites 8; la9, laterotergites 9; pac, posterior annular crest; pco, pars communis; pi, pars intermedialis; tvi, thickening of vaginal intima; X, segment X. Scale bars = 1 mm.

  • View in gallery

    Chloropepla caxiuanensis sp.n., male external and internal genitalia: (A, B) Pygophore: (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view; (C) lateral view of left paramere; (D–F) Phallus: (D) posterior view; (E) lateral view; (F) anterior view. Abbreviations: aa, articulatory apparatus; cj, conjunctiva; dr, dorsal rim; dpr, dorsal process of hypandrium; hy, hypandrium; mp, marginal process of dorsal rim; pa, paramere; pht, phallotheca; ppht1, processus phallothecae 1; ppht2, processus phallothecae 2; ve, vesica; vp, vesica collar process; vpr, ventral process of hypandrium; vr, ventral rim; X, segment X. Scale bars = 1 mm.

  • View in gallery

    Chloropepla caxiuanensis sp.n., female external and internal genitalia: (A) genital plates; (B) gonocoxites and gonapophyses of ninth segment and ectodermal genital ducts. Abbreviations: aac, anterior annular crest; cs, capsula seminalis; ch, chitinellipsen; g9, gonapophyses 9; gc8, gonocoxites 8; gc9, gonocoxites 9; la8, laterotergites 8; la9, laterotergites 9; pac, posterior annular crest; pco, pars communis; pi, pars intermedialis; tvi, thickening of vaginal intima; X, segment X. Scale bars = 1 mm.

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