Evolutionary gain of male secondary sexual structures in the widespread Neotropical montane genus Lathecla (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini)

in Insect Systematics & Evolution
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Lathecla is a widespread, primarily montane, Neotropical genus. It consists of seven species that have a relatively uniform adult wing pattern coupled with a diverse set of male secondary sexual structures. Taxonomically, we describe five species — Lathecla mitzi Robbins new species, Lathecla fernandezi Robbins & Busby new species, Lathecla vichai Robbins & Busby new species, Lathecla carolyna Busby new species and Lathecla winnie Robbins & Busby new species and remove one name from synonymy — Thecla mimula Draudt, revised status. Evidence is presented for transferring Lathecla from the Thestius Section of the Eumaeini to the Micandra section, next to Podanotum. Topology of an inferred phylogenetic tree for Lathecla is stable when male secondary sexual characters are omitted or under a variety of implied weighting options. A scent patch on the cubital vein of the dorsal surface of the forewing is unique to Lathecla and evolved (and was not lost) in the ancestor of a four-species lineage. Its sister lineage contains two species. A scent patch on the ventral surface of the forewing evolved (and was not lost) in the ancestor of a six-species lineage in Lathecla. Its sister lineage contains one species. These results, along with previous data, show the viability for the Eumaeini of the hypothesis that the evolutionary gain of a male secondary sexual organ increases the rate of species diversification.

Evolutionary gain of male secondary sexual structures in the widespread Neotropical montane genus Lathecla (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini)

in Insect Systematics & Evolution

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References

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Figures

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    Adult Lathecla. Male (left, dorsal wing surface on left) and female (right) except for L. mitzi, for which these males are the only known specimens. (1) L. mitzi holotype male (PR, Brazil), paratype male (RJ, Brazil); (2) L. latagus male (Panama), female (Mexican holotype of Thecla epopeoides Schaus); (30 L. mimula male (Ecuador), female (RJ, Brazil); (4) L. fernandezi holotype male (eastern Ecuador), female (eastern Ecuador); (5) L. vichai holotype male (Panama), female (Panama); (6) L. carolyna holotype male (western Ecuador), female (western Ecuador); (7) L. winnie holotype male (Costa Rica), female (Costa Rica). Scale 1.0 cm. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Scent patches, Lathecla fernandezi (left) and L. vichai. (8) Ventral forewing scent patch; (9) dorsal hindwing scent patch; (10) dorsal forewing scent patch on cubital vein. Inset on left higher magnification. Inset on right, SEM of cubital vein cross section through the scent patch, showing that it is not a scent pad (see text). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

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    Most parsimonious cladogram for Lathecla with unambiguous character state changes (34 steps, CI = 0.91, RI = 0.94). Hollow circles are homoplastic changes. Numbers to right of nodes are bootstrap values. Nodes A, B, and C denote where scent pads evolved on the dorsal hindwing, ventral forewing, and dorsal forewing, respectively. See text for further explanation.

  • View in gallery

    Lathecla male genitalia. Ventral and lateral view of the genital capsule (top, middle) and lateral view of the penis (bottom). Posterior of insect to the right. (13) L. mitzi; (14) L. latagus; (15) L. mimula; (16) L. vichai. Scale 1 mm.

  • View in gallery

    Lathecla male genitalia. Ventral and lateral view of the genital capsule (top, middle) and lateral view of the penis (bottom). Posterior of insect to the right. (17) L. fernandezi; (18) L. Winnie; (19) L. carolyna. Scale 1 mm.

  • View in gallery

    Geographic distribution of L. mitzi (hearts), L. fernandezi (stars) and L. vichai (diamonds).

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    Geographic distribution of L. mimula (squares), L. latagus (circles).

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    Geographic distribution of L. carolyna (hearts), L. winnie (flowers).

  • View in gallery

    Três Picos, Itatiaia National Park, RJ, Brazil. Arrow points to the mountain summit (1650 m) where the paratype male of L. mitzi was found. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/1876312x.

  • View in gallery

    Lathecla female genitalia. Dorsal (top) and lateral view of the ductus copulatrix. Posterior of insect to the right. (20) L. latagus; (21) L. mimula; (22) L. fernandezi; (23) L. vichai; (24) L. carolyna; (25) L. winnie. Scale 1 mm.

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