We report the discovery of a new Calvertiellidae from the Xiaheyan locality (Namurian, early Late Carboniferous; Tupo Formation; China), namely Xiaheyanella orta gen. et sp. n. Besides representing both the most ancient and the most oriental occurrences for the family, the new species exhibits a derived wing venation pattern, especially if compared to the putative palaeodictyopteran cousins of the family. This discovery shows that, by the early Late Carboniferous, many insect lineages of moderate importance (i.e., considered at the familial level or below) already had a widespread distribution, and that derived conditions already accumulated. This concurs with the view that insects had already experienced a long evolutionary history by that time, remaining to be documented.
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