Twelve new species of the Asian plant bug genus Ernestinus Distant (Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae: Eccritotarsini), with emphasis on unique biology and descriptions of three additional new eccritotarsine species

in Insect Systematics & Evolution
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The Asian eccritotarsine plant bug genus Ernestinus Distant is diagnosed, redescribed and discussed, on the basis of reevaluation on the effective taxonomic characters including the genitalic structures of both sexes as well as the unique biology. Nineteen congeners are now known, including a dozen of new species herein described from Indonesia (from the Sundaland to the Wallacea), SW Japan, Laos, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. All the new species were observed to inhabit leaves (mostly abaxial surfaces) of the Araceae monocots (particularly of the subfamily Aroideae), on which the adults and every instar immature forms are frequently gregarious together. In addition, three new species in three eccritotarsine genera, Diocleroides Stonedahl & Hernandez, Dioclerus Distant and Harpedona Distant, confirmed during examinations of related materials from Nepal and Thailand, are described. Annotated checklist of all the congeners and a key to all currently known species are provided, to facilitate species identifications.

Insect Systematics & Evolution

An International Journal of Systematic Entomology

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References

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Figures

  • Male and female (E, H) genitalia of Dioclerus himalayanus sp. n. (A−E) and Harpedona stonedahli sp. n. (F−H). (A) Pygophore in dorsal view; (B) ditto, apex in ventral view; (C) left paramere; (D) endosoma, with phallotheca; (E, H) bursa copulatrix; (F) pygophore in ventral view; (G) ditto, caudal view. Scale bars 0.2 mm. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Male genitalia of Harpedona stonedahli sp. n. (A−G) and left lateral view of thorax for Diocleroides kazuyamadai sp. n. (H), Dioclerus himalayanus sp. n. (I), and Harpedona stonedahli sp. n. (J). (A) Pygophore in dorsal view; (B) ditto, anterior view; (C), ditto, left lateral view; (D) pygophoral (aedeageal) processes; (E) left paramere; (F) right paramere; (G) endosoma.

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  • Female genitalia (bursa copulatrix) in dorsal view. (A) Ernestinus kasumi sp. n.; (B) E. tetrastigma Yasunaga; (C) E. ramkeshariae sp. n.; (D) E. pallidiscutum (Poppius); (E) E. siamensis sp. n.; (F) E. sundacolus sp. n.; (G) E. sarikanus sp. n.; (H) E. sakaerat sp. n.; (I) E. tabanan sp. n.; (J) E. taiwanicus sp. n.; (K) E. wallaceanus sp. n. Abbreviations: IRL, interramal lobe; LOB, lateral oviduct; PWB, posterior wall; RDP, median rim of dorsal labiate plate; SED, seminal depository; VLP, ventral labiate plate; VMG, vermiform gland. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Habitat and habitus images for Ernestinus sundacolus sp. n. (A−E) and other new species (F−I). (A) Colocasia sp. and (B) Alocasia sp., habitats of E. sundacolus (Bali, Indonesia); (C) E. sundacolus, adults (Bali); (D−E) E. sundacolus colony of adults and nymphs (Bali); (F) an adult, probably conspecific with E. xanthetrus sp. n. (Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc, Vietnam; 31 May 2011); (G) E. xanthetrus, male adult in ventral view (Laos); (H) E. taiwanius sp. n., holotype female; (I) E. vientianensis sp. n., holotype female (Laos); (J) an adult identical to E. vientianensis (Sa Pa, Lao Cai, Vietnam; 26 May 2011). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Dorsal habitus images of Ernestinus spp. (A) E. sundacolus sp. n., male; (B) ditto, male; (C) E. wallaceanus sp. n., male (Lombok, Indonesia); (D) ditto, female (Lombok); (E) ditto, female (Flores); (F) E. mimicus Distant, holotype female (AMNH_PBI 00085668, Natural History Museum, London); (G) E. sarikanus sp. n.; (H) E. tabanan sp. n., female; (I) E. namtokius sp. n., holotype male; (J) E. tetrastigma Yasunaga, holotype male; (K) E. kasumi sp. n., male; (L) E. ramkeshariae, female. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Habitat and habitus images for two Japanese Ernestinus spp. (A) An ‘elephant ear’, Alocasia odora, habitat of E. pallidiscutum (Poppius) (Ishigaki Island, Ryukyus); (B) E. pallidiscutum, colony of adults and nymphs; (C) ditto, adult female; (D) habitat (with bleached host leaves of Pinellia tripartita and exuviae) of E. kasumi sp. n. at Japanese Shinto Shrine (Nagasaki); (E) Arisaema serratum, leaves spotted by mirid; (F) nymphs of E. kasumi on Pinellia tripartita. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Male genitalia of Ernestinus sundacolus sp. n. (A−B), E. tabanan sp. n. (C−E) and E. wallaceanus sp. n. (F−H) and E. xanthetrus sp. n. (I−K). (A, D, F, G) left paramere; (B, E, H) right paramere: (C, I) pygophore, caudal view; (J) ditto, dorsal view; (K) ditto, ventral view. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Habitat and habitus images for Ernestinus spp. (A) E. kasumi sp. n., adult male (Nagasaki, Japan); (B) ditto, adult female; (C) ditto, emerging first annual generation, male (late July); (D−E) adult male and nymphs on Arisaema serratum; (F) gregarious adults on Pinellia tripartita causing chlorosis or bleaching (November); (G) a female adult ovipositing on the stem of P. tripartita (July); (H) E. tetrastigma, adult female (Ishigaki Island, Ryukyus); (I) E. namtokius sp. n., holotype male; (J) partly bleached host plant, probably Arisaema sp. (Nakhon Nayok, Thailand). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Scanning electron micrographs for Ernestinus spp., left lateral view of head and thorax (A, D, F), labium (B) and metathoracic scent efferent system (E, G). (A−C) E. pallidiscutum (Poppius); (D−E) E. kasumi sp. n.; (F−G) E. sakaerat sp. n.

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  • Scanning electron micrographs for Ernestinus spp., left lateral view of head and thorax (A, C, E, G) and scent efferent system (arrowed: B, D, F, H). (A−B) E. sarikanus sp. n.; (C−D) E. sundacolus sp. n.; (E−F) E. wallaceanus sp. n.; (G−H) E. ramkeshariae sp. n.

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  • Scanning electron micrographs for Ernestinus spp., pretarsal structure. (A) E. kasumi sp. n.; (B) E. pallidiscutum (Poppius); (C) E. ramkeshariae sp. n.; (D) E. sarikanus sp. n.; (E) E. sundacolus sp. n.; (F) E. wallaceanus sp. n.

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  • Male genitalia of Ernestinus kasumi sp. n. (A−B), E. ramkeshariae sp. n. (C−D), E. namtokius sp. n. (E−G), and E. sarikanus sp. n. (H−J). (A, C, F, I) Left paramere; (B, D, G, J) right paramere; (E) pygophore with parameres, dorsal view; (H) pygophore, ventral view. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Male genitalia of Ernestinus siamensis sp. n. (A−B), E. taiwanicus sp. n. (C−D), E. pallidiscutum (Poppius) (E) and E. sakaerat sp. n. (F). (A, C) Pygophore with parameres, dorsal view; (B, D) ditto, ventral view; (E−F) parameres. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Male genitalia of Ernestinus kasumi sp. n. (A−D), E. tetrastigma Yasunaga (E−H), E. nigriscutum Lin (I−J) and E. pallidiscutum (Poppius) (K−L). (A, E, K) Pygophore with endosoma, dorsal (A), dorsal and slightly posterior (E) and caudal (K) views; (B, F, I) left paramere; (D, H, L) endosoma. I and J redrawn from images by Lin (2001).

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  • Male genitalia (endosoma) of Ernestinus ramkeshariae sp. n. (A), E. sakaerat sp. n. (B), E. siamensis sp. n. (C), E. xanthetrus sp. n. (D), E. namtokius sp. n. (E), E. sarikanus sp. n. (F), E. sundacolus sp. n. (G), E. wallaceanus sp. n. (H) and E. tabanan sp. n. (I).

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  • Habitat and habitus images for Ernestinus ramkeshariae sp. n. in Nepal. (A) A wild Colocasia sp. (Pokhara); (B) typical edible Taro, Colocasia esculenta, planted at small garden (Kathmandu); (C) gregarious adults on wild Colocasia sp. (Chitwan); (D−E) colony of adults and nymphs on abaxial surface of Taro leaves (Kathmandu); (F) female adults (Kathmandu); (G) ditto (Pokhara); (H−J) nymphs (Kathmandu). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Habitat (K) and habitus images for additional eccritotarsine members. (A−C) Dioclerus himalayanus sp. n.; (D) D. thailandensis Stonedahl (Thailand); (E) Diocleroides kazuyamadai sp. n., male; (F) ditto, female; (G) ditto, final instar nymph; (H) Harpedona stonedahli sp. n., mating pair (male: left) in Thailand; (I) ditto, final instar nymph; (J) ditto, adult from Nepal; (K) leaves of Epipremnum sp. spotted by Harpedona stonedahli. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Digital images of known eccritotarsine members (Nakhon Nayok, Thailand). (A) Harpedona marginata Distant, adult female; (B) ditto, final instar nymph; (C) gregarious (numerous) immature forms and (a few) adults (I) of a tingid, Stephanitis typica Distant (Tingidae: Tinginae), with a few individuals of two mirid species on the same, abaxial banana leaf; (D) Prodromus clypeatus Distant, 4th instar nymph; (E) ditto, 3rd instar nymph; (F−G) ditto, male adult; (H) Stethoconus praefectus (Distant) (Deraeocorinae: Hyaliodini), adult and a final instar nymph (arrowed on C, as 5n). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Male (A−E) and female (F) genitalia of Diocleroides kazuyamadai sp. n. (A) Pygophore, dorsal view; (B) left paramere; (C) right paramere; (D) endosoma, covered with phallotheca; (E) exposed endosoma; (F) bursa copulatrix. Scale bars 0.2 mm.

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  • Habitat and habitus images for two Thai species of Ernestinus, E. sarika sp. n. (A−E) and E. siamensis sp. n. (F−G). (A) Colocasia sp., habitat of E. sarika (Buddhist temple garden in Nakhon Nayok, Thailand); (B) colony of adult and late (4th−5th) instar nymphs; (C) colony of adults in December; (D) male adults; (E) late instar nymphs; (F) E. siamensis, female adult; (G) ditto, nymphs. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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  • Habitat and habitus images for Ernestinus sakaerat sp. n. in Thailand. (A) Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, leaves partly damaged by the mirid; (B) leaf-chlorosis; (C−D) adult and late instar nymphs on abaxial surface of a leaf; (E) mating pair (female left); (F) female adult; (G) every instar nymphs. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1876312x.

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