The monophyly of the Glaurocarini (Diptera: Tachinidae: Tachininae) with the description of a new species of Semisuturia from Australia

in Insect Systematics & Evolution
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The Glaurocarini are a small Old World tribe of tachinids belonging to the subfamily Tachininae. Two genera are currently recognized, Glaurocara Thomson with 16 species and Semisuturia Malloch with eight species. In this study we describe Semisuturia moffattensis Inclán, O’Hara, Stireman & Cerretti sp. n. from Queensland and New South Wales and compare it with congeners as well as other glaurocarines. The new species is readily identifiable among world glaurocarines by having a row of setae on lower 2/3 of facial ridge. We further evaluate the monophyly of the Glaurocarini on the basis of morphological characters of both adult and larval stages. A molecular phylogenetic analysis also supports monophyly of the tribe but does not support a close relationship between Glaurocarini and Ormiini as has been suggested previously. Finally, we provide new morphological evidence from both adults and first instar larvae to support the monophyly of both Semisuturia and Glaurocara.

The monophyly of the Glaurocarini (Diptera: Tachinidae: Tachininae) with the description of a new species of Semisuturia from Australia

in Insect Systematics & Evolution

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References

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Figures

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    Live specimen of Glaurocara sp. (cf. flava Thomson) from Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique (image courtesy of P. Naskrecki).

  • View in gallery

    Males of Semisuturia spp. (A) S. moffattensis sp. n., habitus (holotype, ANIC); (B) S. parviseta (Malloch) (Australia, Queensland, MZUR), habitus; (C) S. moffattensis sp. n., head in lateral view (paratype, MZUR); (D) S. parviseta, head in lateral view; (E) S. moffattensis sp. n., head in dorsal view (paratype, MZUR); (F) S. parviseta, head in dorsal view; (G) S. moffattensis sp. n., wing (holotype), H. Detail of bend of M1 of Fig. G (red arrow indicates M2 appendix); (I) S. parviseta, wing; (L) S. moffattensis sp. n., abdomen (holotype).

  • View in gallery

    (A–B) Semisuturia moffattensis sp. n., male terminalia (paratype, MZUR): (A) Posterior view; (B) Lateral view. (C–D). S. parviseta (Malloch), male terminalia (Australia, Queensland, MZUR); (C) Posterior view; (D) Lateral view. (E–F) Glaurocara flava Thomson (South Africa, MZUR), male terminalia: (E) Posterior view; (F) Lateral view. Abbreviations: c, cerci, e, epandrium, s, surstylus.

  • View in gallery

    (A–C) Semisuturia moffattensis sp. n., phallus and associated parts (paratype, MZUR): (A) Dorsal view; (B) Lateral view; (C) Ventral view. (D–F) S. parviseta (Malloch), phallus and associated parts: (D) Dorsal view; (E) Lateral view; (F) Ventral view. (G–I) G. flava Thomson (South Africa, MZUR), phallus and associated parts: (G) Dorsal view; (H) Lateral view; (I) Ventral view. Abbreviations: bp, basiphallus; bebp, basal extension of basiphallus; dp, distiphallus; ej apod, ejaculatory apodeme; Mvr, medioventral ridge; pr, pregonite; ps, postgonite.

  • View in gallery

    (A–H) Semisuturia moffattensis sp. n., first instar larva (paratype, CNC): (A) Lateral view; (B) Ventral view; (C) Anterior segments and cephaloskeleton in lateral view; (D) Terminal segments in dorsal view; (E) Terminal segments in ventral view (red arrow indicates lateroventral, marginal sensillum of segment 12); (F) Postero-lateral view; (G) Tegumental sculpture in lateral view; (H) Terminal segments in ventral view. Scale bar = 50 µm. Abbreviations: III–XI, Segments 3–11, each covered with a sclerotized plate; XIIpl, hemiplate of segment 12; bs, blunt spinules; cp, caudal plate; cs, cephaloskeleton; p spir, posterior spiracle. Colour coding: green, posterior spiracle; red, hemiplates of segment 12; yellow, caudal plates.

  • View in gallery

    Semisuturia spp., first instar larva. (A–B) Semisuturia sp. (Sabah, Malaysia, KUM): (A) Ventral view. (A) Anterior segments and cephaloskeleton in lateral view. (C–D) Semisuturia sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji, KUM): (C) Lateral view; (D) Ventral view.

  • View in gallery

    (A–D) Glaurocara cf. flava Thomson, first instar larva (South Africa, MZUR): (A) Lateral view; (B) Ventral view; (C) Anterior segments and cephaloskeleton in lateral view; (D) Anterior segments and cephaloskeleton in ventral view.

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    Glaurocara spp., first instar larva. (A–E) Glaurocara nigrescens Mesnil (Madagascar, TAU): (A) lateral view; (B) ventral view; (C) anterior segments and cephaloskeleton in lateral view; (D) anterior segments and cephaloskeleton in ventral view; (E) posterior segments in ventral view. (F–G) Glaurocara sp. (?lucidula Richter) (Tochigi, Japan, KUM): (F) anterior segments and cephaloskeleton in lateral view; (G) lateral view. Abbreviations: cp, caudal plate; p spir, posterior spicacle.

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    (A–C) First instar larvae of other Tachininae, in lateral view: (A) Aulacephala hervei Bequaert (Ormiini) (Ryukyus, Japan, KUM); (B) Therobia sp. (Ormiini) (Tsusima Is., Japan, KUM); (C) Tachina luteola (Coquillett) (Tachinini) (Niigata, Japan, KUM).

  • View in gallery

    Maximum Likelihood reconstructions of the Glaurocarini and other Tachininae based on nucleotide (A) and amino acid (B) sequences for the nuclear gene CAD. Numbers above or beside branches indicate percent bootstrap support for branches with >70%.

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