Genital Morphology of Winged and Wingless Males in the Ant Genus Cardiocondyla (Formicidae, Myrmicinae)

in Insect Systematics & Evolution
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The myrmicine ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a peculiar male diphenism with winged disperser males and wingless, “ergatoid” fighter males. Here we describe and illustrate the morphology of the male external genitalia of 13 species of this genus. Several characters, especially the parossiculus of the volsella and the medial face of the paramere, vary between different species groups and might be useful to clarify the infrageneric taxonomy of Cardiocondyla. External genitalia between different phenotypes of a species differ primarily in size. All examined males, both winged and ergatoid, have a parameral hook that resembles a structure described in Nesomyrmex males but apparently is absent in other studied myrmicine ants. The presence and absence of this hook might be useful for future studies on the relationships within the myrmicine tribe Crematogastrini.

Genital Morphology of Winged and Wingless Males in the Ant Genus Cardiocondyla (Formicidae, Myrmicinae)

in Insect Systematics & Evolution

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References

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Figures

  • View in gallery

    Male external genitalia of different species of Cardiocondyla. (A) C. minutior, ventral view (arrows point to the parameral hook); (B) C. minutior, ventral view; (C) C. minutior, lateral view; (D) C. nigra, apico-medial-view showing volsella and paramere (arrow points to parameral hook); (E) C. nigra, detail of paramere, showing parameral hook and excavation of parameral wall; (F) C. tjibodana, ventral view showing microsculpture (arrow) adjacent to parameral hook; (G) C. tjibodana, medial view of volsella and paramere (arrows point to depressions in medial face of paramere); (H) C.argyrotricha”, apico-medial-view of volsella and paramere; (I) C.argyrotricha”, mesial view of volsella and paramere; (J) C.argyrotricha”, lateral view of penisvalve (pl, length of penisvalve). BM, basimere; BVP, basivolsellar projection (indicated by circle); DG: digitus, P: paramere, PH: parameral hook (indicated by arrow), PO: parossiculus; T, telomere; V, volsella; VC, valviceps; VV, valvura. In A–C, F, G, I and J top-bottom corresponds to basal–apical; in C, G, I and J left-right corresponds to dorsal–ventral.

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    C. nigrocerea, ergatoid male: (A, B) ventral view of male external genitalia (circle indicates basivolsellar projection); (C) medial view of volsella and paramere; (D) lateral view of volsella. BVP, basivolsellar projection (indicated by circle); DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

  • View in gallery

    C.argyrotricha”, ergatoid male: (A) ventral view of male external genitalia; (B) medial view of volsella and paramere; (C) medial view of volsella. BVP, basivolsellar projection (indicated by circle); DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C.microseta”, ergatoid male: (A) ventral view of male external genitalia; (B) medial view of penisvalve, volsella and paramere. BVP, basivolsellar projection (indicated by circle); PH, parameral hook.

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    C. obscurior, winged male: (A, B) ventral view of male external genitalia of C. obscurior; (C) rugae on medial wall of paramere and digitus (arrows). (D) medial view of penisvalve, volsella and paramere; (E) lateral view of volsella; DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C. wroughtonii, winged male: (A) ventral view of male external genitalia; (B) medial view of volsella and paramere with rugae on medial face of paramere (arrow). PH, parameral hook.

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    C. minutior, winged male: (A, B): ventral view of male external genitalia (arrows point to microsculpture); (C) medial view of penisvalve, volsella and paramere (deep depressions indicated by arrows). DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C. tjibodana, winged male: (A–C) ventral view of male external genitalia (deep depressions of the paramere indicated by arrows); (D) medial view of volsella and paramere (arrows point to deep depressions on medial face of the paramere); (E) medial view of volsella. DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C. kagutsuchi, ergatoid male: (A and B) ventral view of male external genitalia (arrows point to microsculpture); (C) medial view of volsella and paramere.

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    C. mauritanica, ergatoid male: (A and B) ventral view of male external genitalia (arrows point to microsculpture); (C) medial view of volsella and paramere; (D) antero-ventral view of volsella and paramere showing furrow (arrow). DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C. venustula, ergatoid male: (A–C) ventral views of male external genitalia with detail of microsculpture antero-laterally adjacent to parameral hook (C); (D) medial view of volsella. DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C. batesii, ergatoid male: (A) ventral view of male external genitalia; (B) latero-ventral view of male external genitalia; (C) medial view of volsella and paramere (arrow points to concave ventral surface of parossiculus); (D) medial view of volsella. DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C. nigra, ergatoid male: (A, B) ventral view of male external genitalia; (C) medial view of volsella and paramere (arrow points to concave ventral surface of parossiculus). DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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    C. elegans, ergatoid male: (A) ventral view of male external genitalia (distinct ventrally oriented extension of parossiculus indicated by arrow); (B) medial view of volsella, parameral hook and microsculpture on paramere (arrow points to large excavation between parameral hook and medial wall of paramere); (C) medial view of volsella and paramere (arrow points to furrow in medial parameral wall); (D) lateral view of volsella; (E) medial view of volsella. DG, digitus; PH, parameral hook; PO, parossiculus.

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