Systematics and biogeography of the Afrotropical flea beetle subgenus Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) Biondi & D’Alessandro, with description of seven new species (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

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A taxonomic revision of the species attributed to the subgenus Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) Biondi & D’Alessandro is provided. Seven new species are described: Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) afarensis sp. nov. and B. (A.) tajurensis sp. nov. from Djibouti; B. (A.) bantu sp. nov. from Kenya; B. (A.) benadiriensis sp. nov. from Somalia; B. (A.) nubiana sp. nov. from Sudan; B. (A.) pusilla sp. nov. from Ethiopia and Kenya; B. (A.) zephyra sp. nov. from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria. An updated catalogue, including material examined, distributions, chorotypes, and ecological notes, is supplied. The revision comprises a key to the eleven known species, habitus photos, and microscope and scanning electron micrographs of diagnostic characters, including the aedeagus and spermatheca. A phylogenetic analysis based on parsimony was provided. The strict consensus tree was used to put forward a preliminary biogeographical analysis of the taxon in the light of the current distribution of the species.

Insect Systematics & Evolution

An International Journal of Systematic Entomology

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References

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Figures

  • Habitus (A) and elytral punctation (B). LB: body length. Blepharidina antinorii (Chapuis), female lectotype (1); B. benadiriensis sp. nov., male holotype (2); B. nubiana sp. nov., male holotype (3); B. somaliensis, male holotype (Bryant) (4).

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  • Habitus (A) and elytral punctation (B). LB: body length. Blepharidina tajurensis sp. nov., male holotype (5); B. zephyra sp. nov., male holotype (6); B. afarensis sp. nov., male holotype (7); B. scripta (Weise), male (8).

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  • Habitus. LB: body length. Blepharidina bantu sp. nov., male holotype (9); B. gedyei (Bryant), male (10); B. pusilla sp. nov., male holotype (11).

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  • Head. Blepharidina afarensis sp. nov. (12); B. bantu sp. nov. (13); B. benadiriensis sp. nov. (14); B. gedyei (Bryant) (15); B. pusilla sp. nov. (16); B. scripta (Weise) (17). fg: frontal grooves; ios: interocular space; tw: transverse width of eye.

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  • Pronotum and basal part of elytra. Blepharidina bantu sp. nov. (18); B. benadiriensis sp. nov. (19); B. gedyei (Bryant) (20); B. pusilla sp. nov. (21); B. scripta (Weise) (22); B. zephyra sp. nov. (23). ld: lateral dimple.

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  • Median lobe of aedeagus in ventral (v), dorsal (d), and lateral (l) view. Blepharidina afarensis sp. nov. (24); B. antinorii (Chapuis) (25); B. bantu sp. nov. (26); B. benadiriensis sp. nov. (27); B. gedyei (Bryant) (28); B. nubiana sp. nov. (29). ml: main lobe of dorsal ligula.

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  • Median lobe of aedeagus in ventral (v), dorsal (d), and lateral (l) view. Blepharidina pusilla sp. nov. (30); B. scripta (Weise) (31); B. somaliensis (Bryant) (32); B. tajurensis sp. nov. (33); B. zephyra sp. nov. (34). llb: lateral lobe of dorsal ligula; mlb: medial lobe of dorsal ligula.

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  • Female genitalia. Blepharidina afarensis sp. nov. (35); B. antinorii (Chapuis) (36); B. benadiriensis sp. nov. (37); B. gedyei (Bryant) (38); B. nubiana sp. nov. (39); B. pusilla sp. nov. (40); B. scripta (Weise) (41); B. zephyra sp. nov. (42). ap: apical part, bp: basal part, dc: ductus; im: inner margin of basal part; om: outer margin of basal part.

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  • Distributions of Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) species. Blepharidina afarensis sp. nov.; B. antinorii (Chapuis); B. benadiriensis sp. nov.; B. gedyei (Bryant); B. nubiana sp. nov.

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  • Distributions of Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) species. B. bantu sp. nov.; B. pusilla sp. nov.; B. scripta (Weise); B. somaliensis (Bryant); B. tajurensis sp. nov.; B. zephyra sp. nov.

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  • Graphical results of ancestral distributions at each node of the phylogeny of the subgenus Afroblepharida obtained by BBM analysis (exported from RASP 3.2). The legend reports the colour key to possible ancestral ranges at different nodes; white with asterisk represents the sum of other possible ranges. The percentage of the most probable ancestral area (or areas) for each node is reported. In the table, supposed dispersal and vicariance events for each area are shown. For areas A–F see Figure 54.

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  • Pronotum and basal part of elytra of Blepharidina (Blepharidina) guttulata (Baly) (45); ditto, Calotheca marginalis (Weise) (46); head of B. (B.) guttulata (47); ditto, C. marginalis (48); median lobe of aedeagus (49) and spermatheca (50) of B. (B.) guttulata; median lobe of aedeagus (51) and spermatheca (52) of C. marginalis. d: dorsal view; l: lateral view; llb: lateral lobe of dorsal ligula; ls: latero-basal longitudinal striae of pronotum; mlb: medial lobe of dorsal ligula; v: ventral view.

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  • Strict consensus tree from the parsimony analysis, with Bremer supports and Bootstrap values (see text).

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  • Areas used for the BMB analysis and Blepharidina s. str. and Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) distributional range. A: Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon; B: Sudan, Eritrea; C: Ethiopia, Dijbouti; D: Somalia; E: Kenya; F: Angola, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique.

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