Revision of the genus Scopelodes Westwood, 1841 (Lepidoptera, Limacodidae) with description of 16 new species

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The genus Scopelodes Westwood, 1841 distributed from India and Japan to New Guinea is revised. At present it includes a total of 31 species (34 taxa including subspecies), of which 16 are described as new to science: S. witti, S. pichugini, S. palawana, S. busa, S. jakli, S. uljanae, S. nusatenggarica, S. wetara, S. philippina, S. buraena, S. geminus, S. rudloffi, S. tanimbara, S. brechlini, S. lourensi, and S. notata. Lectotypes are designated for 9 taxa: Bethura minax, Scopelodes lutea, S. pallivittata, S. testacea, S. aurogrisea, S. exigua, S. magnifica, S. dinawa, S. sericea. New synonymy is established for the taxa: Scopelodes testacea = Scopelodes exigua niassica, syn. n. The taxa S. aurogrisea Moore and S. bicolor Wu & Fang are regarded as subspecies within S. venosa Walker. A new combination is proposed here: S. brunneipennis, comb. n. (the species is transferred from the genus Comana Walker).

Revision of the genus Scopelodes Westwood, 1841 (Lepidoptera, Limacodidae) with description of 16 new species

in Insect Systematics & Evolution

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References

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Figures

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    External view of adults. 1. S. unicolor, ♂, Borneo (in MWM); 2. ditto, ♀, lectotype of S. lutea; 3. ditto, ♀, holotype of S. palpalis; 4. S. witti sp. n., holotype; 5. ditto, ♀, Andamans (in MWM); 6. S. pichugini sp. n., holotype; 7. ditto, ♀, paratype, Peleng Isl. (in MWM); 8. S. palawana sp. n., holotype; 9. ditto, ♀, paratype, Palawan (in MWM); 10. S. busa sp. n., holotype; 11. ditto, ♀, paratype, Mindanao (in MWM); 12. S. nitens, ♂, Papua New Guinea (in MWM); 13. S. jakli sp. n., holotype; 14. ditto, ♀, paratype, Tanimbar Isl. (in MWM); 15. S. nusatenggarica sp. n., holotype; 16. ditto, ♀, Sumbawa (in MWM); 17. S. uljanae sp. n., holotype; 18. S. wetara sp. n. holotype; 19. S. buraena sp. n., holotype; 20. S. philippina sp. n., holotype; 21. ditto, ♀, paratype, Mindanao (in SMF); 22. S. geminus sp. n., holotype; 23. ditto, ♀, paratype, W. Timor (in MWM); 24. S. tanimbara sp. n., holotype; 25. S. rudloffi sp. n., holotype; 26. S. exigua, holotype; 27. ditto, ♂, W. Seram (in MWM).

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    External view of adults. 28. S. pallivittata, ♂, N. Thailand (in MWM); 29. ditto, ♂, Borneo (in MWM); 30. ditto, ♀, N. Thailand (in MWM); 31. S. brechlini sp. n., holotype; 32. ditto, ♀, paratype, Negros (in MWM); 33. S. lourensi sp. n., holotype; 34. S. testacea, ♂, Nepal (in MWM); 35. ditto, ♂, Cambodia (in MWM); 36. ditto, ♂, N. Myanmar (in MWM); 37. ditto, ♂, N. Thailand (in MWM); 38. ditto, ♂, N. Thailand (in MWM); 39. ditto, ♂, W. Sumatra (in MWM; DNA: Witt-Limac 323); 40. ditto, ♂, W. Sumatra (in MWM; DNA: Witt-Limac 328); 41. ditto, ♀, Nepal (in MWM); 42. S. albipalpalis, ♂, Borneo (in MWM); 43. ditto, ♂, Borneo (in MWM); 44. ditto, ♀, holotype; 45. S. griseoscura, ♂, Java (in MWM); 46. ditto, ♂, Java (in MWM); 47. ditto, ♀, Java (in MWM).

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    External view of adults. 48. S. venosa venosa, ♂, N. Myanmar (in MWM); 49. ditto, ♂, N. India (in MWM); 50. ditto, ♀, N. Myanmar (in MWM); 51. S. venosa aurogrisea, ♂, S. India (in MWM); 52. S. venosa bicolor, ♂, Vietnam (in MWM); 53. ditto, ♀, N. Thailand (in MWM); 54. S. kwangtungensis, ♂, Nepal (in MWM); 55. ditto, ♂, China (Jiangxi) (in MWM); 56. ditto, ♂, China (Sichuan) (in MWM); 57. ditto, ♂, N. Thailand (in MWM); 58. ditto, ♀, N. India (in MWM); 59. ditto, ♂, N. India (in MWM); 60. S. brunneipennis, holotype; 61. S. notata sp. n., holotype; 62. ditto, ♂, Sumbawa (in MWM); 63. S. magnifica, ♂, Sulawesi (in MWM); 64. ditto, ♂, Sulawesi (in MWM); 65. ditto, ♀, Sulawesi (in MWM).

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    External view of adults. 66. S. dinawa, ♂, lectotype; 67. S. vulpina, ♂, Nepal (in MWM); 68. ditto, ♂, Nepal (in MWM); 69. ditto, ♀, Nepal (in MWM); 70. S. contracta, ♂, China (Shaanxi) (in MWM); 71. ditto, ♀, Japan (Honshu) (in MWM); 72. S. sericea, ♂, N.E. India (in MWM); 73. ditto, ♂, China (Jiangxi – Fujian) (in MWM); 74. ditto, ♀, China (Hainan) (in MWM).

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    Underside view of males. 75. S. witti sp. n., N. Thailand (in MWM); 76. S. albipalpalis, Borneo (in MWM); 77. S. venosa venosa, Nepal (in MWM); 78. S. magnifica, Sulawesi (in MWM); 79. S. contracta, China (Hubei) (in MWM); 80. S. notata sp. n., paratype, Flores (in MWM); 81. S. sericea, China (Jiangxi) (in MWM).

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    Male antennae. 82. S. unicolor (slide 17888); 83. S. witti sp. n. (slide 17898); 84. S. pichugini sp. n. (slide 17900); 85. S. palawana sp. n. (slide 17901); 86. S. busa sp. n. (slide 17899); 87. S. nitens (slide 17905); 88. S. jakli sp. n. (slide 17910); 89. S. nusatenggarica sp. n. (slide 17903); 90. S. uljanae sp. n. (slide 17906); 91. S. philippina sp. n. (slide 17895); 92. S. geminus sp. n. (slide 17908); 93. S. rudloffi sp. n. (slide 17902); 94. S. tanimbara sp. n. (slide 17909); 95. S. pallivittata (slide 17896); 96. S. brechlini sp. n. (slide 17907); 97. S. testacea (slide 17884); 98. S. albipalpalis (in MWM, slide 17883); 99. S. venosa venosa (slide 17885); 100. S. kwangtungensis (slide 17886); 101. S. notata sp. n. (slide 17897); 102. S. magnifica (slide 17904); 103. S. vulpina (slide 17813); 104. S. contracta (slide 17889); 105. S. sericea (slide 17887) (all specimens kept in MWM).

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    Labial palps of males. 106. S. unicolor, Sumatra; 107. ditto, Borneo (slide 17888); 108. S. witti sp. n., N. Thailand; 109. S. pichugini sp. n., holotype; 110. ditto, paratype, Peleng Isl.; 111. S. palawana sp. n., paratype, Palawan; 112. S. busa sp. n., paratype, Mindanao; 113. S. nitens, Papua New Guinea; 114. S. jakli sp. n., paratype, Tanimbar Isl.; 115. S. nusatenggarica sp. n., paratype, Flores; 116. S. uljanae sp. n., paratype, Halmahera; 117. S. wetara sp. n., holotype; 118. S. philippina sp. n., paratype, Mindanao; 119. S. buraena sp. n., paratype, Timor; 120. S. geminus sp. n., paratype, Timor; 121. S. rudloffi sp. n., paratype, Papua New Guinea (all specimens kept in MWM).

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    Labial palps of males. 122. S. tanimbara sp. n., paratype, Tanimbar Isl. (in MWM); 123. S. exigua, Seram (in MWM); 124. S. pallivittata, Penins. Malaysia (in MWM); 125. S. brechlini sp. n., paratype, Negros (in MWM); 126. S. testacea, Sumatra (in MWM); 127. S. lourensi sp.n., paratype, Mindoro (in SFML); 128. S. albipalpalis, Borneo (in MWM); 129. ditto, Borneo (in MWM); 130. S. griseoscura, Java (in MWM); 131. S. venosa venosa, N. Myanmar (in MWM); 132. S. kwangtungensis, N. Myanmar (in MWM); 133. S. notata sp. n., paratype, Flores (in MWM); 134. S. magnifica, Sulawesi (in MWM); 135. S. vulpina, Nepal (in MWM); 136. S. contracta, China (Shaanxi) (in MWM); 137. S. sericea, China (Yunnan) (in MWM).

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    Male genitalia. 138. S. unicolor, Sumatra (in MWM, genitalia slide 16812); 139. S. witti sp. n., holotype; 140. S. pichugini sp. n., holotype; 141. ditto, paratype, Peleng Isl. (in MWM, genitalia slide 16800); 142. S. palawana sp. n., holotype; 143. S. busa sp. n., holotype; 144. ditto, paratype, Leyte (in MWM, genitalia slide 16774); 145. S. nitens, holotype; 146. S. jakli sp. n., holotype; 147. S. nusatenggarica sp. n., holotype; 148. S. uljanae sp. n., holotype; 149. S. wetara sp. n., holotype.

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    Male genitalia. 150. S. philippina sp. n., holotype; 151. S. buraena sp. n., paratype, Timor (in MWM, genitalia slide 17799); 152. S. geminus sp. n., holotype; 153. S. rudloffi sp. n., holotype; 154. S. tanimbara sp. n., holotype; 155. S. exigua, holotype; 156. ditto, W. Seram (in MWM, genitalia slide 16799); 157. S. pallivittata, Bali (in MWM, genitalia slide 17854); 158. S. brechlini sp. n., holotype; 159. ditto, Luzon (in MWM, genitalia slide 20135); 160. S. testacea, Sumatra (in MWM, genitalia slide 17831); 161. ditto, Nepal (in MWM, genitalia slide 17833).

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    Male genitalia. 162. S. lourensi sp. n., holotype; 163. S. albipalpalis, Borneo (in MWM, genitalia slide 17828); 164. S. griseoscura, Java (in MWM, genitalia slide 17830); 165. S. venosa venosa, Nepal (in MWM, genitalia slide 17864); 166. S. venosa aurogrisea, lectotype; 167. S. venosa bicolor, N. Thailand (in MWM, genitalia slide 13919); 168. S. kwangtungensis, China (Hainan) (in MWM, genitalia slide 13944); 169. S. brunneipennis, holotype; 170. S. notata sp. n., holotype; 171. S. magnifica (‘pale’ form), Sulawesi (in MWM, genitalia slide 17873); 172. ditto (‘dark’ form), Sulawesi (in MWM, genitalia slide 17874); 173. S. dinawa, lectotype.

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    Male genitalia. 174. S. vulpina, China (Xizang) (in MWM, genitalia slide 13954); 175. ditto, Nepal (in MWM, genitalia slide 13956); 176. ditto, Nepal (in MWM, genitalia slide 17913); 177. S. contracta, China (Shaanxi) (in MWM, genitalia slide 15972); 178. ditto, China (Yunnan) (in MWM, genitalia slide 16115); 179. S. sericea, China (Hainan) (in MWM, genitalia slide 13942).

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    Female genitalia. 180. S. unicolor, holotype of S. palpalis; 181. S. witti sp. n., paratype, Andamans (in MWM, genitalia slide 16802); 182. S. pichugini sp. n., paratype, Peleng Isl. (in MWM, genitalia slide 16803); 183. S. palawana sp. n., paratype, Palawan (in MWM, genitalia slide 16804); 184. S. busa sp. n., paratype, Mindanao (in MWM, genitalia slide 17867); 185. S. jakli sp. n., paratype, Tanimbar Isl. (in MWM, genitalia slide 17817); 186. S. nusatenggarica sp. n., Sumbawa (in MWM, genitalia slide 16820); 187. S. philippina sp. n., paratype, Mindanao (in SMF, genitalia slide 2282/11); 188. S. geminus sp. n., paratype, Timor (in MWM, genitalia slide 17925); 189. S. pallivittata, N. Thailand (in MWM, genitalia slide 16836).

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    Female genitalia. 190. S. brechlini sp. n., paratype, Negros (in MWM, genitalia slide 16827); 191. S. testacea, Nepal (in MWM, genitalia slide 13937); 192. S. griseoscura, Java (in MWM, genitalia slide 17848); 193. S. venosa venosa, lectotype of S. ursina; 194. S. venosa bicolor, N. Thailand (in MWM, genitalia slide 13917); 195. S. kwangtungensis, China (Jiangxi) (in MWM, genitalia slide 13965); 196. S. magnifica, Sulawesi (in MWM, genitalia slide 16831); 197. S. vulpina, Nepal (in MWM, genitalia slide 13955); 198. S. contracta, Taiwan (in MWM, genitalia slide 15973); 199. S. sericea, China (Hainan) (in MWM, genitalia slide 13941).

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    Immature stages. 200. S. testacea, mature larvae, Vietnam (photo by Dr. Vadim V. Zolotuhin); 201. ditto, mature larva, Vietnam; 202. ditto, cocoon, Vietnam; 203. S. unicolor, cocoon, Java (NHMUK); 204. S. venosa bicolor, mature larva, Vietnam; 205. ditto, mature larva, Vietnam; 206. ditto, cocoon, Vietnam; 207. S. venosa aurigrisea, cocoon, Ceylon (NHMUK); 208. S. nitens, cocoon, Rossel Isl. (NHMUK); 209. S. sericea, young larva, Vietnam.

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    Distributional maps. 210. S. unicolor; 211. S. witti sp. n.; 212. S. pichugini sp. n.; 213. S. palawana sp. n.; 214. S. busa sp. n.; 215. S. nitens; 216. S. jakli sp. n.; 217. S. nusatenggarica sp. n.; 218. S. uljanae sp. n.; 219. S. wetara sp. n.; 220. S. philippina sp. n.; 221. S. buraena sp. n. & S. geminus sp. n.

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    Distributional maps. 222. S. rudloffi sp. n.; 223. S. tanimbara sp. n.; 224. S. exigua; 225. S. pallivittata; 226. S. brechlini sp. n.; 227. S. testacea; 228. S. lourensi sp. n.; 229. S. albipalpalis; 230. S. griseoscura; 231. S. venosa venosa (circles) & S. venosa aurogrisea (squares); 232. S. venosa bicolor; 233. S. kwangtungensis.

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    Distributional maps. 234. S. notata sp. n.; 235. S. magnifica; 236. S. dinawa; 237. S. vulpina; 238. S. contracta; 239. S. sericea.

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