Notes are given on the identity and synonymy of five species of Lepidoptera described by Linnaeus, twenty-eight by Fabricius and two by Ström. Each species dealt with is treated under the apparent valid combination; for each species reference is given to the original description. Twenty-four new species-group name synonyms are introduced and nine new combinations are established: Nemaxera betulinella (Fabr.), Argyresthia arcella (Fabr.), Depressaria depressana (Fabr.), Chrysoesthia drurella (Fabr.), Brachmia blandella (Fabr.), Acleris laterana (Fabr.), Pseudohermenias abietana (Fabr.), Epinotia abbreviana (Fab.) and Acrobasis repandana (Fabr.). During the work two neotypes, twenty-seven lectotypes and two paralectotypes have been designated and are here cited for the first time.