The type material of most European nominal species previously placed in Rhoptromeris and of some other species is studied. Notes are given on the type material, 10 lectotypes are designated and the identity of the species is discussed. Three valid Rhoptromeris species are found: R. heptoma (Hartig) [type species], R. villosa (Hartig) and R. rufiventris (Giraud) n.comb. The latter is the type species of Hexamerocera Kieffer which is synonymized with Rhoptromeris. The genus Rhoptromeris is described and compared with related genera. The three species found to be valid are figured and redescribed, and also a new species, R. nigriventris, is described from Sweden. R. heptoma is an important parasitoid of Oscinella frit (L.) (Dipt.: Chloropidae).