A systematic revision of the Japanese species of the genus Therion (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae)

in Insect Systematics & Evolution
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The Japanese species of the genus Therion Curtis, 1829 (Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae) were revised based on examination of 447 Japanese specimens. Four species are recognized based on morphology and sequence data (mtCOI). Two of them are identified as previously known species: T. circumflexum (Linnaeus, 1758) and T. giganteum (Gravenhorst, 1829). The other two species are described as new: T. carinatum Shimizu & Bennett, sp. nov. and T. nigrigasterum Shimizu, Bennett & Ito, sp. nov. In addition, T. rufomaculatum (Uchida, 1928) stat. rev. is once again synonymized with T. circumflexum. The Japanese species of Therion are easily distinguished from each other by a newly provided key. The lasiocampid moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis (Butler, 1877), is newly recorded as a host of T. giganteum.

A systematic revision of the Japanese species of the genus Therion (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae)

in Insect Systematics & Evolution

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References

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Figures

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    Measurement characters of Therion. (1) head in frontal view: A-facial height, B-facial width, C-clypeal height, D-clypeal width; (2) head in dorsal view: E-IOD, F-LOD, G-OOD, H-POD; (3) fore wing: BI = fh/ij, CI = fg/gh, DBI = fi/df, MI = bc/ab, ICI = bd/de, discosubmarginal cell (DS), first subdiscal cell (D1), second discal cell (D2); (4) hind wing: RI = kl/lm, NI = no/op.

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    Lateral habitus of Japanese Therion. (5) T. carinatum sp. nov. (HT); (6) T. circumflexum; (7) T. giganteum; (8) T. nigrigasterum sp. nov. (HT).

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    Maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on mtCOI sequences of Therion species. Bootstrap values (>50%) are indicated at the nodes. See Table 1 for specimen codes.

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    SEM images of Therion carinatum sp. nov. (HT). (10) head in frontal view; (11) head in dorsal view; (12) mesosoma in lateral view; (13) mesoscutum in dorsal view; (14) scutellum and propodeum in dorsal view; (15) hind outer tarsal claw in lateral view.

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    SEM images of Therion circumflexum (a female from Honshu). (16) head in frontal view; (17) head in dorsal view; (18) mesosoma in lateral view (white allows shows a longitudinal impression of upper margin of pronotum); (19) mesoscutum in dorsal view; (20) scutellum and propodeum in dorsal view; (21) hind outer tarsal claw in lateral view.

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    Color variations of female of Therion circumflexum in Japan. (a, b) Japanese specimens (a, Niigata Pref.; b, Nagano Pref.), which were previously belonging to T. circumflexum; (c) Chinese specimen, which was previously belonging to T. rufomaculatum (synonymized with T. circumflexum in this paper).

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    Phenology of Therion circumflexum in Japan.

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    SEM images of Therion giganteum (a female from Hokkaido). (24) head in frontal view; (25) head in dorsal view; (26) mesosoma in lateral view (white allows shows a longitudinal impression of upper margin of pronotum); (27) mesosucutum in dorsal view; (28) scutellum and propodeum in dorsal view; (29) hind outer tarsal claw in lateral view.

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    SEM images of Therion nigrigasterum sp. nov. (a female PT). (30) head in frontal view; (31) head in dorsal view; (32) mesosoma in lateral view; (33) mesosucutum in dorsal view; (34) scutellum and propodeum in dorsal view; (35) hind outer tarsal claw in lateral view.

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    Type locality of Therion nigrigasterum sp. nov.

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    Female of c sp. nov. visiting Aralia cordata Thunberg at the type locality.

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    Distribution of Japanese Therion. (37) T. carinatum sp. nov.; (38) T. circumflexum; (39) T. giganteum; (40) T. nigrigasterum sp. nov.

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