Molecular phylogeny of sea-skaters (Halobates ), relationship between Halobatini and Metrocorini, and a catalogue of the subfamily Halobatinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae)

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the ten Halobatinae genera (Heteroptera: Gerridae) based on COI+II, 16S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes. Our analyses recovered monophyly of Halobatinae, and suggested paraphyly of Metrocorini caused by the position of Ventidius and Esakia. Since our phylogenies did not infer monophyly of the subgenus Halobates (s.str.) within Halobatini, we synonymized Austrobates and Halobates (Hilliella) with Halobates. We confirmed that (1) the limnic lifestyle of Metrocorini was ancestral in Halobatinae, (2) the marine lifestyle evolved only once in the common ancestor of Asclepios + Halobates, (3) the limnic lifestyle of some members of Halobates was independently derived from marine ancestors, and that (4) the open ocean was colonized at least three times in Halobates. A catalogue of Halobatinae organized according to an updated classification is presented, including all known geographic distributions, bibliographical references, and additional notes to all species of the subfamily.

  • Andersen N.M. (1982) The semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Phylogeny, adaptations, biogeography, and classification. Entomonograph 3: 1455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. (1991) Marine insects: genital morphology, phylogeny and evolution of sea skaters, genus Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 2160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. (1998) Water striders from the Paleogene of Denmark with a review of the fossil record and evolution of semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Biologiske Skrifter 50: 1157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. & Cheng L. (2004) The marine insect Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae): biology, adaptations, distribution, and phylogeny. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 42: 119180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. Cheng L. Damgaard J. & Sperling F.A.H. (2000) Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of oceanic insects (Hemiptera: Gerridae: Halobates spp.). Marine Biology 136: 421430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. & Polhemus J.T. (1976) Water-striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae, Veliidae, etc.) pp. 187224 in Cheng L. (ed.) Marine Insects. North-Holland Publishing Company/American Elsevier Publishing CompanyAmsterdam/Oxford/New York 581 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. & Weir T.A. (1994a) The sea skaters, genus Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera: Gerridae), of Australia: taxonomy, phylogeny and zoogeography. Invertebrate Systematics 8: 861909.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. & Weir T.A. (1994b) Austrobates rivularis, gen. et sp. nov., a freshwater relative of Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera: Gerridae), with a new perspective on the evolution of sea skaters. Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N.M. & Weir T.A. (2003) A new species of sea skaters, Halobates Eschscholtz, from Robinson River, Western Australia (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Gerridae). Aquatic Insects 25: 918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bremer K. (1994) Branch support and tree stability. Cladistics 10: 295304.

  • Cai C. Huang D. Wu F. Zhao M. & Wang N. Tertiary water striders (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha, Gerridae) from the central Tibetan Plateau and their palaeobiogeographic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences In Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.P. (1994) An overview of Chinese Metrocoris Mayr with description of three new species (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Entomologica Sinica 1: 124134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.P. & Nieser N. (1993a) A taxonomic revision of the Oriental water strider genus Metrocoris Mayr (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Part I. Steenstrupia 19: 143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.P. & Nieser N. (1993b) A taxonomic revision of the Oriental water strider genus Metrocoris Mayr (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Part II. Steenstrupia 19: 4582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.P. & Zettel H. (1999) A taxonomic revision of the Oriental water strider genus Ventidius Distant (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha, Gerridae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 141: 137208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.P. Nieser N. & Zettel H. (2005) The aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) of Malesia. Fauna Malesiana Handbook 5: 1546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1965) The genus Ventidius Distant (Heteroptera: Gerridae) in Malaya, with a description of four new species. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 34B: 153163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1966) Three new species of Esakia Lundblad (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from Malaya. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 35B: 1622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1977) The elusive sea bug Hermatobates (Heteroptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 53: 8797.

  • Cheng L. (1985) Biology of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Annual Review of Entomology 30: 111135.

  • Cheng L. (1989a) Biogeography and phylogeny of the sea-skater Halobates . Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 7: 233239.

  • Cheng L. (1989b) Factors limiting the distribution of Halobates species. Reproduction, Genetics and Distribution of Marine Organisms. 23rd European Marine Biology Symposium. Ryland J.S. and Tyler P.A. eds. Olsen & OlsenDenmark Pp. 357362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (2008) Nils and Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Insect Systematics and Ecology 39: 475479.

  • Cheng L. & J.H. Wormuth (1992) Are there separate populations of Halobates in the Gulf of Mexico? Bulletin of Marine Science 50: 307319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L.J. J. Damgaard & R. Garrouste (2012) The sea-skater Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) – probably cause for extinction in the Mediterranean and potential for re-colonization following climate change. Aquatic Insects 34: 4555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • China W.E. (1955) The evolution of the water bugs. In Symposium on Organic Evolution. Bulletin of the National Institute of Science 7: 91103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • China W.E. (1957) The marine Hemiptera of the Monte Bello Islands, with descriptions of some allied species. Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 43: 342357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cognato A.I. & Vogler A.P. (2001) Exploring data interaction and nucleotide alignment in a multiple gene analysis of Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Systematic Biology 50: 758780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. (2008) Phylogeny of the semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerromorpha). Insect Systematics and Evolution 39: 431460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. (2012) What do we know about the phylogeny of the semi-aquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)? Entomologica Americana 118: 8198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. & Cognato A.I. (2006) Phylogeny and reclassification of species groups in Aquarius Schellenberg, Limnoporus Stål and Gerris Fabricius (Insecta: Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerridae). Systematic Entomology31: 93112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. & Sperling F.A. (2001) Phylogeny of the water strider genus Gerris fabricius (Heteroptera: Gerridae) based on COI mtDNA, EF-1a nuclear DNA and morphology. Systematic Entomology 26: 241254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. Andersen N.M. Cheng L. & Sperling F.A. (2000). Phylogeny of sea skaters, Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera, Gerridae), based on mtDNA sequence and morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 511526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Distant W.L. (1915) A few undescribed Rhynchota. Journal of Natural History15: 503507.

  • Felsenstein J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 313329.

  • Herring J.L. (1961) The genus Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae) . Pacific Insects 3: 223305.

  • Huelsenbeck J.P. & Bull J.J. (1996) A likelihood ratio test to detect conflicting phylogenetic signal. Systematic Biology 45: 9298.

  • Huelsenbeck J.P. & Ronquist F. (2001) MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17: 754755.

  • Hungerford H.B. & Matsuda R. (1960) Keys to subfamilies, tribes, genera and subgenera of the Gerridae of the World. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 41: 323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ikawa T. O. Hidehiko & L. Cheng (2012) Skaters of the seas – comparative ecology of nearshore and pelagic Halobates species (Hemiptera: Gerridae), with special reference to Japanese species. Marine Biology Research 8: 915936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lansbury I. (1990) New species of Ventidius Distant (Hem. Gerridae) from Thailand and Malaya. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 126: 6166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leo S.S.T. Cheng L & Sperling F.A.H. (2012) Genetically separate populations of the ocean-skater Halobates sericeus (Heteroptera: Gerridae) have been maintained since the late Pleistocene. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105: 797805.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lescoute A. Leontis N.B. Massire C. & Westhof E. (2005) Recurrent structural RNA motifs, isostericity matrices and sequence alignments. Nucleic Acids Research 33: 23952409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matsuda R. (1960) Morphology, evolution and a classification of the Gerridae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 41: 25632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller M.A. Pfeiffer W. & Schwartz T. (2011) The CIPRES science gateway: a community resource for phylogenetic analyses. Salt Lake CityACM.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore W.S. (1995) Inferring phylogenies from mtDNA variation: mitochondrial-gene trees versus nuclear-gene trees. Evolution 49: 718726.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muraji M. & Tachikawa S. (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of water striders (Hemiptera: Gerroidea) based on partial sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. Entomological Science 3: 615626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polhemus J.T. (1982) Marine Hemiptera of the northern territory, including the first fresh-water species of Halobates Eschscholtz (Gerridae, Veliidae, Hermatobatidae and Corixidae). Austral Entomology 21: 511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polhemus J.T. & Cheng L. (1982) Notes on marine water-striders with descriptions of new species part I. Gerridae (Hemiptera). Pacific Insects 24: 219227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J.T. Polhemus & D.A. Polhemus (1989) A new mesoveliid genus and two new species of Hebrus (Heteroptera: Mesoveliidae, Hebridae) from intertidal habitats in Southeast Asian mangrove swamps. Raffl Bull Zool 37: 7382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polhemus J.T. & Polhemus D.A. (2006) The marine Heteroptera of Far Eastern New Guinea and adjacent Archipelagoes (Insects, Gerromorpha). Denisia 19, zugleich Kataloge der OÖ Landesmuseen Neue Serie 50: 927982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polhemus J.T. & D.A. Polhemus (2008) Global diversity of true bugs (Heteroptera; Insecta) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 379391.

  • Posada D. (2008) jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular biology and evolution 25 : 12531256.

  • Rambaut A. & Drummond A. (2007) Tracer v1.4. Available from: http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/tracer/.

  • Ronquist F. Teslenko M. van der Mark P. Ayres D.L. Darling A. Höhna S. Larget B. Liu L. Suchard M.A. & Huelsenbeck J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61: 539542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silvestro D. & Michalak I. (2012) raxmlGUI: a graphical front-end for RAxML. Organisms Diversity & Evolution: 13.

  • Simon C. Frati F. Beckenbach A. Crespi B. Liu H. & Flook P. (1994) Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the entomological Society of America 87: 651701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sorensen M.D. (1999) TreeRot version 2a. Boston UniversityBoston.

  • Spence J.R. & Andersen N.M. (1994) Biology of water striders: interactions between systematics and ecology. Annual Review of Entomology 39: 101128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Springer M.S. DeBry R.W. Douady C. Amrine H.M. Madsen O. de Jong Wilfried W. & Stanhope M.J. (2001) Mitochondrial versus nuclear gene sequences in deep-level mammalian phylogeny reconstruction. Molecular biology and evolution 18: 132143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swofford D.L. (1998) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4 . Sinauer AssociatesSunderland.

  • Thompson J.D. Gibson T.J. Plewniak F. Jeanmougin F. & Higgins D.G. (1997) The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research 25: 48764882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tran A.D. Yang C.M. & Cheng L. (2015) Water Bugs of Singapoe and Peninsular Malaysia. Lee Kong Chian Natural History MuseumNational University of SingaporeSingapore. 334 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang Z. (1994) Estimating the pattern of nucleotide substitution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 39: 105111.

  • Yang C.M. Wong T.C.M. Lua H.K. & Koh L.M. (1999) Check list of aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Pulau Tioman, Paninsular Malausia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements 6: 277288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ye Z. Zhen Y. Damgaard J. Chen P. Zhu L. Zheng C. & Bu W. (2018) Biogeography and diversification of Holarctic water striders: Cenozoic temperature variation, habitat shifting and multiple intercontinental dispersals. Systematic Entomology 43: 1930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abu-Zoherah R. Al-Taher K. & Tilkian S. (1993) List of Insects Recorded from Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and WaterRiyadh v + 394 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahmed R. S. & Gadalla S. M. (2005) Contribution to the study of Heteroptera, Gerromorpha (Semiaquatic bugs). V. Water crickets (Family Veliidae) from Egypt. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 8: 219226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alayo P. D. (1967) Catalogo de la fauna de Cuba XVI. Los hemipteros acuaticos de Cuba. Trabajos de Divulgación Museo “Felipe Poey” de la Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 38: 168 + plates I–III.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alayo P. D. (1974) Los hemipteros acuaticos de Cuba. Torreia (n.s.) 36: 762.

  • Alfken J. D. (1903) Beitrag zur Insectenfauna der Hawaiischen und Neuseeländischen Inseln (Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific) Schauinsland 1896–97. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 19: 561628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1976) A study of locomotion on the water surface in semiaquatic bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 139: 337396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1977) Fine structure of the body hair layers and morphology of the spiracles of semiaquatic bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Gerromorpha) in relation to life on the water surface. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 140: 737.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1981) Adaptations, ecological diversifications, and the origin of higher taxa of semiaquatic bugs (Gerromorpha). Rostria 33 (suppl.): 316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1982) The semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Phylogeny, adaptations, biogeography, and classification. Entomonograph 3: 1455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1991a) Marine insects: genital morphology, phylogeny and evolution of sea skaters, genus Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 2160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1991b) Cladistic biogeography of marine water striders (Insecta, Hemiptera) in the Indo-Pacific. Australian Systematic Botany 4: 151163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1998a) Marine water striders (Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) of the Indo-Pacific: cladistic biogeography and Cenozoic palaeogeography pp. 341354 in Hall R. & Holloway J. D. (eds.) Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia. Backhuys PublishersLeiden.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (1998b) Water striders from the Paleogene of Denmark with a review of the fossil record and evolution of semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha). Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab . Biologiske Skrifter 50: 1152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. (2001) The impact of W. Hennig’s “Phylogenetic Systematics” on contemporary entomology. European Journal of Entomology 98: 133150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. & Cheng L. (2004) The marine insect Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae): biology, adaptations, distribution, and phylogeny. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 42: 119180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. & Foster W. A. (1992) Sea skaters of India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, with a new species and a revised key to Indian Ocean species of Halobates and Asclepios (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Journal of Natural History 26: 533553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. & Polhemus J. T. (1976) Water-striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae, Veliidae, etc.) pp. 187224 in Cheng L. (ed.) Marine Insects. North-Holland Publishing Company/American Elsevier Publishing CompanyAmsterdam/Oxford/New York581 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. & Weir T. (1994a) Austrobates rivularis, gen. et sp. nov., a freshwater relative of Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera: Gerridae), with a new perspective on the evolution of sea skaters. Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. & Weir T. (1994b) The sea skaters, genus Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera: Gerridae), of Australia: taxonomy, phylogeny and zoogeography. Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 861909.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. & Weir T. (2003) A new species of sea skaters, Halobates Eschscholtz, from Robinson River, Western Australia (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Gerridae). Aquatic Insects 25: 918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. & Weir T. (2004) Australian Water Bugs Their Biology and Identification (Hemiptera-Heteroptera Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha). Apollo Books/CSIRO PublishingStenstrup/Collingwood344 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. Cheng L. Damgaard J. & Sperling F. H. A. (2000) Mithocondrial DNA sequence variation and philogeography of oceanic insects (Hemiptera: Gerridae: Halobates spp.). Marine Biology 136: 421430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen N. M. Farma A. Minelli A. & Piccoli G. (1994) A fossil Halobates from the Mediterranean and the origin of sea skaters (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 112: 479489.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Annandale N. (1911) Note on aquatic Rhynchota. Records of the Indian Museum 6: 111112.

  • Annandale N. (1919) The fauna of certain small streams in the Bombay Presidency. Records of the Indian Museum 16: 1109 + plates I–VII.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Annandale N. & Kemp S. (1915) Fauna of the Chilka Lake aquatic insects, other than Coleoptera, with notes on some marginal species. Memoirs of the Indian Museum 5: 177189 + plate XI.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Annandale N. & Robinson H. C. (1903) Itinerary in Perak, Selangor, and the Siamese Malay States. Fasciculi Malayensis (supplement) 1: ixliii + map.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arechalaveta M. Zurita N. Marrero M. C. & Martín J. L. (2005) Lista Preliminar de Especies Silvestres de Cabo Verde Hongos Plantas y Animales Terrestres. Gobierno de CanariasLa Laguna155 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aristizábal H. G. (2002) Los Hemípteros de la Película Superficial del Agua en Colombia Parte 1 Familia Gerridae. Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y NaturalesBogotá239 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ashmole N. P. & Ashmole M. J. (1967) Comparative feeding ecology of sea birds of a tropical oceanic island. Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 24: 1131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aukema B. & Rieger C. (1995) Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region Volume I Enicocephalomorpha Dipsocoromorpha Nepomorpha Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha. The Netherlands Entomological SocietyAmsterdam222 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aukema B. Rieger C. & Rabitsch W. (2013) Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region Volume 6 Supplement. The Netherlands Entomological SocietyAmsterdam629 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azuma S. Hori S. Kinjo M. Minato K. Murayama M. & Uesugi K. (1996) Field Guide-book to the Insects of Okinawa Vol. VII Hemiptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Phasmida et al. Okinawa ShuppanUrasoe270 pp. [in Japanese].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bae Y. J. & Lee B. H. (2001) Human impacts on stream ecosystems and freshwater arthropods in Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 31: 6376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bae Y. J. Kil H. K. & Bae K. S. (2005) Benthic macroinvertebrates for uses in stream biomonitoring and restoration. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 9: 5563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baena M. & Báez M. (1990) Los heterópteros acuáticos de las Islas Canarias (Heteroptera; Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha). Vieraca 19: 233244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bai M. Cui J. Hu J. & Li L. (2014) Catalogue of the Insect Type Specimens Deposited in China . Vol. 3. Beijing.

  • Bal A. & Basu R. C. (1994) Insecta: Hemiptera: Mesoveliidae, Hydrometridae, Veliidae & Gerridae. Zoological Survey of India, State Fauna Series 3 Fauna of West Bengal 5: 511534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bal A. & Basu R. C. (2003) Insecta: Hemiptera: water-bugs. Zoological Survey of India, State Fauna Series 9 Fauna of Sikkim 2: 541557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Banks N. (1910) Catalogue of the Nearctic Hemiptera-Heteroptera. American Entomological SocietyPhiladelphia103 pp.

  • Barber H. G. (1914) Insects of Florida. II. Hemiptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 33: 495535.

  • Barber H. G. (1925) Hemiptera-Heteroptera from the Williams Galapagos Expedition. Zoologica 5: 241255.

  • Barber H. G. (1934) The Norwegian Zoological Expedition to the Galapagos Islands 1925, conducted by Alf Wollebaek XI Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Meddelelser fra det Zoologiske Museum 42: 281289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barber H. G. (1943) The Halobates . Biological Results of the Last Cruise of the Challenger 4: 7784.

  • Barman B. & Gupta S. (2015) Aquatic insects as bio-indicator of water quality – A study on Bakuamari stream, Chakras hila Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, North East India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 3: 178186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bass D. (2003) Freshwater macroinvertebrates of Barbados. Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 49: 269280.

  • Basu S. Polhemus D. A. Subramanian K. A. Saha G. K. & Venkatesan T. (2016a) Metrocoris Mayr (Insecta: Hemiptera: Gerridae) of India with descriptions of five new species. Zootaxa 4178: 257277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basu S. Subramanian K. A. & Saha G. K. (2016) Aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) of Terai-Dooars Region of West Bengal, India. Halteres 7: 120135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basu S. Subramanian K. A. Valarmathi K. & Saha G. K. (2015) First record of Metrocoris quynhi Tran and Zettel, 2005 (Insecta: Heteroptera: Gerridae) from India. Entomon 40: 97102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bendanillo F. E. Yurong R. R. Roble N. D. Yee J. C. & Soto F. B. (2016) Species composition, abundance and distribution of seawater bugs (order Hemiptera: class Insecta) in Badian, Cebu, Philippines. Journal of Aquatic Science 4: 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergroth E. (1893) Mission scientifique de M. Ch. Alluaud aux Ilés Séchelles (mars, avril, mai 1892). Hétéroptères. Revue d’Entomologie 12: 197209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergroth E. (1914) Heteropterous Hemiptera from Natal and Zululand collected by Dr. I. Trägårdh. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Musei Zoologiska Afdelning 4: 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergroth E. (1915) Some Javanese Hemiptera collected by E. Jacobsen and Th. H. Mac Gillavry. Zoologische Mededelingen 1: 109123.

  • Bigot L. (1971) Contribution a l’étude écologique des peuplements halophiles de la région de Tuléar (Madagascar) III. – Les “sansouires” et les marais. Annales de l’Université de Madagascar 8: 8194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biodiversity Center of Japan [BCJ] (2010) Animal Distribution Atlas of Japan. Biodiversity Center of JapanYamanashi. Available at: http://www.biodic.go.jp/kiso/atlas/pdf/animal_distribution_atlas_of_japan.pdf [in Japanese].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bismi L. S. & Pillai P. M. (2017) DNA barcoding and molecular phylogeny of some heteropterans in Shola Forest, Southern Western Ghats, Kerala. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 12: 4954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blanchard É. (1840) Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Orthoptères Névroptères Hémiptères Hyménoptères Lépdoptères et Diptères. P. DuménilParis672 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blatchley W. S. (1926) Heteroptera or True Bugs of Eastern North America with Special Reference to the Faunas of Indiana and Florida. The Nature Publishing CompanyIndianapolis1110 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boer M. H. (1965) Revisionary notes on the genus Metrocoris Mayr (Heteroptera, Gerridae) with descriptions of four new species. Zoologische Verhandelingen 74: 338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borges P. A. V. Costa A. Cunha R. Gabriel R. Gonçalves V. Martins A. F. Melo I. Parente M. Raposeiro P. Rodrigues P. Santos R. S. Silva L. Vieira P. & Vieira V. (2010) Listagem dos Organismos Terrestres e Marinhos dos Açores. A List of the Terrestrial and Marine Biota from the Azores. PrincípiaOeiras412 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borges P. A. V. Cunha R. Gabriel R. Martins A. F. Silva L. & Vieira V. (2005) A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores. Direcção Regional do Ambiente & Universidade dos AçoresHorta, Angra do Heroísmo & Ponta Delgada317 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowler J. Bullock I. Cadbury J. Gerlach J. & Hunter J. (1999) The ecology and conservation of Aride Island, Seychelles. Phelsuma 7: 3755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breddin G. (1903) Hemiptera, gesammelt von Professor Kükenthal im Malaiischen Archipel. Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 25: 137202 + plate IX.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breddin G. (1905) Rhynchota Heteroptera aus Java, gesammelt von Prof. K. Kraepelin 1904. Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum in Hamburg 22: 109159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brimley M. D. H. (1938) The metathoracic postcoxal bridge of Heteroptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 13A: 103106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Britton W. E. (1923) Guide to the insects of Connecticut part IV the Hemiptera or sucking insects of Connecticut. Bulletin of the Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey 34: 1807 + plates I–XX.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown E. S. (1950) A small collection of Hemiptera, mostly aquatic, from Oman. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (12)3: 474480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown E. S. (1951) Aquatic and semi-aquatic Hemiptera. British Museum Expedition to South West Arabia 1937–1938 17: 221273.

  • Brożek J. & Zettel H. (2014) A comparison of the external morphology and functions of labial tip sensilla in semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha). European Journal of Entomology 111: 275297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan E. H. (1922) Halobates in Hawaii (Hemiptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 5: 283284.

  • Bryan E. H. & Sweezey O. H. (1926) Insects of Hawaii, Johnston Island and Wake Island – Hemiptera. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 5: 283284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burmeister H. (1835) Handbuch der Entomologie . Zweiter Band. Berlin213 pp.

  • Butler A. G. (1881) Account of the zoological collections made during the survey of H.M.S. ‘Alert’ in the straits of Magellan and on the coast of Patagonia. VIII. Lepidoptera, Orthoptera and Hemiptera . Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1881: 8287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buzzetti F. M. & Cianferoni F. (2011) Checklist of the Gerromorpha from Ecuador (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) . Edessana Beiträge zur Taxonomie Faunistik und Ökologie insbesondere tropischer Heteropteren 1: 117125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carpenter G. H. (1892) Reports on the zoological collections made in Torres Straits by Professor A. C. Haddon, 1888–1889. Rhynchota from Murray Island and Mabuiag. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society 7: 137146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carpenter G. H. (1906) Report on the marine Hemiptera (Halobates) collected by Professor Herdman at Ceylon, in 1902. Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar 5: 151156 + plate.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casale A. (1981) Cataloghi II – Collezione Emitterologica di Massimiliano Spinola. Museo Regionale di Scienze NaturaliTorino120 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassis G. & Gross G. (1995) Zoological Catalogue of Australia 27.3A Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Coleorrhyncha to Cimicomorpha). CSIROMelbourne506 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chakrabarty S. P. Ghosh L. K. & Basu R. C. (1994) On a collection of Hemiptera from Namdapha Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India Occasional Paper 161: 142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chandra K. Jehamalar E. E. & Ragunathan C. (2012) Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Hemiptera: Insecta) of Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 112: 7989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen B. Li T. J. & He Z. B. (2010) Insects in Chongqing Municipality. Science PressBeijing vii + 331 pp.

  • Chen H. Xu Z. Tang Y. & Jin G. (1995) A list of Hemiptera and their hosts from the forest regions in Lishui Prefecture, Zhejiang Province, China. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis 17: 204214. [in Chinese with English abstract].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. (1994) An overview of Chinese Metrocoris Mayr with description of three new species (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Entomologica Sinica 1: 124134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. (1995) A new species of Metrocoris Mayr from Yunnan, China (Insecta: Heteroptera: Gerridae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien series B97: 155158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. (1999) Hemiptera: Gerridae pp. 11–20 in Fauna of Insects Fujian Province of China Vol 1–2. Fujian Science and Technology PressFuzhou. [in Chinese].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. & Andersen N. M. (1993) A checklist of Gerromorpha from China (Hemiptera). Chinese Journal of Entomology 13: 6975.

  • Chen P.-P. & Nieser N. (1992) Gerridae, mainly from Sulawesi and Pulau Buton (Indonesia). Notes on Malesian aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera), III. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 135: 145162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. & Nieser N. (1993a) A taxonomic revision of the Oriental water strider genus Metrocoris Mayr (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Part I. Steenstrupia 19: 143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P & Nieser N. (1993b) A taxonomic revision of the Oriental water strider genus Metrocoris Mayr (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Part II. Steenstrupia 19: 4582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. & Nieser N. (1996) A new species of Metrocoris (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from Sangihe Island (Indonesia). Entomologische Berichten 56: 7275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. & Zettel H. (1998) Key to the genera and subgenera of Gerridae (Gerromorpha) of Thailand and adjacent countries, with a check-list of species known from Thailand. Amemboa 2: 2441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. & Zettel H. (1999a) Five new species of the Halobatinae genus Metrocoris Mayr, 1865 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Gerridae) from continental Asia. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien series B101: 1332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. & Zettel H. (1999b) A taxonomic revision of the Oriental water strider genus Ventidius Distant (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha, Gerridae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 141: 137208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. Andersen N. M. & Nieser N. (1993) Checklist of Chinese Gerromorpha. Contributions from Tianjin Natural History Museum 10: 2428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. Nieser N. & Lekprayoon C. (2006a) Notes on SE Asian water bugs, with descriptions of two new species of Timasius Distant (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 149: 5566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. Nieser N. & Sangpradub N. (2006b) Records of aquatic bugs (Heteroptera, Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha) mainly from northeast Thailand, with descriptions of four new species. Denisia 19: 775794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen P.-P. Nieser N. & Zettel H. (2005) The aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha & Gerromorpha) of Malesia. Fauna Malesiana Handbook 5: 1546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1966) Three new species of Esakia Lundblad (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from Malaya. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 35B: 1622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1971) Ocean striders from Melanesia (Hemiptera: Gerridae, Halobates spp.). Cahiers de O.R.S.T.O.M. Série Oceanographie 9: 513518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1972) Skaters of the seas. Oceans 5: 5455.

  • Cheng L. (1973a) Can Halobates dodge nets? I: by daylight? Limnology and Oceanography 18: 663665.

  • Cheng L. (1973b) The ocean strider Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) in the Atlantic Ocean. Oceanology 13: 564570.

  • Cheng L. (1974a) Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from the seas around Nosy Be, Magalasy. Cahiers de O.R.S.T.O.M. Série Oceanographie 12: 113116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1974b) Halobates from the north-west African area. Resultados Expediciones Cientificas del Buque Oceanografico “Cornide De Saavedra” 3: 169171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1975) Insecta Hemiptera: Heteroptera Gerridae genus Halobates . Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer Zooplankton 147: 14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1981) Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from Micronesia with notes on a laboratory population of H. mariannarum . Micronesica 17: 97106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. (1985) Biology of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Annual Review of Entomology 30: 111135.

  • Cheng L. (1989) Biogeography and phylogeny of the sea-skater Halobates . Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 7: 233239.

  • Cheng L. (1997) Disjunct distributions of Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science 51: 123142.

  • Cheng L. (2006) A bug on the ocean waves (Heteroptera, Gerridae, Halobates Eschscholtz). Denisia 19: 10331040.

  • Cheng L. (2008) Nils and Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Insect Systematics & Evolution 39: 475479.

  • Cheng L. & Fernando C. H. (1969) A taxonomic study of the Malayan Gerridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with notes on their biology and distribution. Oriental Insects 3: 97160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Harrison C. S. (1983) Seabird predation on the sea-skater Halobates sericeus (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Marine Biology 72: 303309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Hill D. S. (1980) Marine insects of Hong Kong pp. 173183 in Proceedings of the First International Marine Biological Workshop: the Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Holdway P. (1983) Halobates collected during the Circumnavigational Expedition “Operation Drake”. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 187198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Holdway P. (1995) Populations of Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae) across two oceans. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 43: 313327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Mathis W. N. (2003) Marine insects of Guam: Heteroptera and Diptera. Micronesica 35: 514522.

  • Cheng L. & Maxfield L. (1980) Nymphs of two sea skaters, Halobates robustus and H. micans (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Systematic Entomology 5: 4347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Pitman R. L. (2002) Mass oviposition and egg development of the ocean-skater Halobates sobrinus (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Pacific Science 56: 441445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Schmitt P. D. (1982) Marine insects of the genera Halobates and Hermatobates (Heteroptera) from neuston tows around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33: 11091112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Schulenberger E. (1980) Distribution and abundance of Halobates species (Insecta: Heteroptera) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Fishery Bulletin 78: 579591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. & Wormuth J. H. (1992) Are there separate populations of Halobates in the gulf of Mexico? Bulletin of Marine Science 50: 307319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. Baars M. A. & Oosterhuis S. S. (1990) Halobates in the Banda Sea (Indonesia): monsoonal differences in abundance and species composition. Bulletin of Marine Science 47: 421430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. Baars M. A. & Smith A. (2011) Life on the high seas – the bug Darwin never saw. Antenna 35: 3642.

  • Cheng L. Damgaard M. & Garrouste R. (2012) The sea-skater Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) – probable cause for extinction in the Mediterranean and potential for re-colonization following climate change. Aquatic Insects 34supplement 1: 4555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. Douek M. & Goring D. A. I. (1978) UV absorption by gerrid cuticles. Limnology and Oceanography 23: 554556.

  • Cheng L. Franco P. J. & Schulz-Baldes M. (1979) Heavy metals in the sea-skater Halobates robustus from the Galápagos Islands: concentrations in nature and uptake experiments, with special reference to cadmium. Marine Biology 54: 201206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. John H. C. & P. (1986) Northeastern range of Halobates micans (Heteroptera, Gerridae) in the Atlantic Ocean. Meeresforschung – Reports on Marine Research 31: 137140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. Schulz-Baldes M. & Harrison C. S. (1984) Cadmium in ocean-skaters, Halobates sericeus (insecta), and in their seabird predators. Marine Biology 79: 321324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. Spear L. & Ainley D. G. (2010) Importance of marine insects (Heteroptera: Gerridae, Halobates spp.) as prey of Eastern Tropical Pacific seabirds. Marine Ornithology 38: 9195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. Yang C. M. & Andersen N. M. (2001) Guide to the aquatic Heteroptera of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. I. Gerridae and Hermatobatidae. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 49: 129148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng L. Yang C. M. Li D. & Liu H. (2006) Aquatic Heteroptera (Insecta: Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha) from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54: 203214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cherng J. J. (2016) Notes on aggregation behavior in Halobates matsumurai (Hemiptera: Gerridae) on beach. Taiwanese Journal of Entomological Studies 1: 13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chilson L. M. (1953) Insect records from Johnston Island. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 15: 8184.

  • China W. E. (1932) Notes on African Helotrephidae (Hemiptera Heteroptera). Entomologist 65: 270273.

  • China W. E. (1957) The marine Hemiptera of the Monte Bello Islands, with descriptions of some allied species. Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 43: 342357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • China W. E. & Miller N. C. E. (1950) The 3rd Danish Expedition to Central Asia. Zoological Results 3. Hemiptera (Insecta) from Afghanistan. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn 112: 225234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clouse R. M. & Schwendinger P. J. (2012) Leptopsalis foveolata sp. n., a new species of Stylocellidae from Thailand that displays a novel morphological feature in the suborder Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 119: 529546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobben R. H. (1968) Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera Part I Eggs architecture of the shell gross embriology and eclosion. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and DocumentationWageningen475 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobben R. H. (1978) Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera Part II. Mouthpart structures and feeding strategies. Mededelingen van de Landbouwhogeschool te Wageningen 78(5): 1401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coscarón M. C. (2017) A catalogue of the Heteroptera (Hemiptera) or true bugs of Argentina. Zootaxa 4295: 1432.

  • Cranston P. S. (2016) Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues. Zootaxa 4109: 315331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dahl F. (1893) Die Halobates-Ausbeute der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung 2: 19.

  • Dalal A. & Gupta S. (2016) A comparative study of the aquatic insect diversity of two ponds located in Cachar District, Assam, India. Turkish Journal of Zoology 40: 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. (2008) Phylogeny of the semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerromorpha). Insect Systematics and Evolution 39: 431460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. & Zettel H. (2014) The water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) of New Caledonia: diversity, ecology and biogeographical significance. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 206: 219238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. Andersen N. M. Cheng L. & Sperling F. A. H. (2000) Phylogeny of sea skaters, Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera, Gerridae), based on mtDNA sequence and morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 511526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. Andersen N. M. & Meier R. (2005) Combining molecular and morphological analyses of water strider phylogeny (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerromorpha): effects of alignment and taxon sampling. Systematic Entomology 30: 289309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damgaard J. (2012) What do we know about the phylogeny of the semi-aquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha). Entomologica Americana 118(1): 81–98.

  • Damgaard J. Moreira F. F. F. Weir T. & Zettel H. (2014) Molecular phylogeny of the pond skaters (Gerrinae), discussion of the fossil record and a checklist of species assigned to the subfamily (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae). Insect Systematics & Evolution 45: 251281 + S1–S43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danulat E. & Edgar G. J. (2002) Reserva Marina de Galápagos. Línea Base de la Biodiversidad. Fundación Charles DarwinSanta Cruz.

  • Davis W. T. (1915) Some of the insects of Chesapeake Beach, Maryland. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 23: 153154.

  • De Carlo J. A. (1935) Catalogo, con la bibliografia mas importante, de los hemipteros acuaticos y semi-acuaticos de Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 39: 105111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Jong R. (2004) Naturalis Exploring Biodiversity. Thirty Years of Zoological Research in the Forests of South-East Asia. National Museum of Natural HistoryLeiden64 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Kort-Gommers M. & Nieser N. (1969) Records of Antillean water-striders (Heteroptera). Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 30: 7287.