THE RÉGIME OF STRAITS IN GENERAL INTERNATIONAL LAW

in The Italian Yearbook of International Law Online
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THE RÉGIME OF STRAITS IN GENERAL INTERNATIONAL LAW

in The Italian Yearbook of International Law Online

References

1 On this wider context: GIULIANO, « II significato e la portata del passaggio inoffensivo nel mare territoriale », 10 CS (ig6o), pp. 133-156. On the problem in general recently: BRUTL, International Straits. A Treatise on International Law, 2 vols., Copenhagen-London, 1947; CoLONrsos, The International Law of the Sea, 6th ed., London, 1967, pp. i97-zoo; SAHOVIC and BISHOP, in SØRENSEN, Manual of Public International Law, London-New York, 1968, pp. 342-343; O'CONNELL, International Law, 2d ed., London, 1970, pp. 495-503; LAPIDOTH, Les detroits en droit international, Paris, 1972. 2 For the former: KOGEVNIKOV (editor), International Law, Moscow, p. 204; DE Hntt- TINGH, Les conceptions sovietiques du droit de la mer, Paris, 1960, p. 30 et seq.; GRZYBOWSKI, Soviet Public International Law, Leyden-Durham, 1970, p. 198 et seq. For the latter, cf.: JOHNSTON, « Canada's Title to Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait », B.Y.I.L. (1934), pp. 1-20; MORIN, « Le progres technique, la pollution et 1'evolution recente du droit de la mer au Canada, particulierement a 1'6gard de l'Arctique », Can. Y.LL. (1970) p. 183 et seq.

3 For the aforesaid links and for the situation in which they are most relevant, see widely GIULIANO, Diritto Internaxionale, II, Milano, 1974, pp. 131-146. See also MORIN, op. cit., p. 173 et seq. for a penetrating analysis of Canada's possible claims in considering the waters of the St. Lawrence gulf as internal. 4 On the three cases cf. I.C.J. Pleadings (Fisheries Case), III, p. 420 et seq., 424 et seq., 397 et seq., espec. p. 437; and IV, p. 291 et seq.; GIULIANO, Diritto Internaxionale cit., 11, p. 145, notes 51 and 52. 5 LC.J. Reports, 1951, p. 132. 6 For an accurate description of the fundamental characteristics of straits which come under consideration in the context, cf. R.H. KENNEDY, Breve etude geographique et hydrogra.- phique des detroits qui constituent des voies de passage internationales, in N.U. (Conference sur le droit de la mer), Documents officiels, I, Geneve, 1958, pp. iz5-i64. ' On the political, diplomatic and legal aspects of the «question of straits» cf.: ANCHIERI, Constantinopoli e gli stretti nella politica russa ed europea, Milano, 1948; BRUEL, International Straits, cit., II, pp. 252-426; B.D.I.L., 2b, pp. 12-24. On recent developments, documents in WHITEMAN, Digest of International Law, IV, Washington, 1965, pp. 422-447; and also: V�LI, The Turkish and Nato, Stanford (California), 1972.

8 On the political and diplomatic aspects of the question of tolls in Danish straits, see in particular: BRÜEL, « Les detroits danois au point de vue du droit international », Hague Recueil 1936, I, pp. 599-695; and International Straits cit., II, pp. 1I-1I5; B.D.I.L., 2b, pp. 25-28. On the ambiguities of the conventional regime on Danish straits in the light of the subsequent practice in time both of peace and of war cf. also a note of 23 June, 1936, of the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs' legal service in Kiss, Repertoire de la pratzque fran- raise en matiere de droit international public, IV, p. i57 et seq. BRUEL, International Straits cit., pp. m6-i99, 200-251; B.D.I.L., 2b, pp. 28-30, q.6-5i. lo MOORE, Digest of International Law, Washington, 1906, I, p. 660.

W IVIOORE, Digest cit., I, p. 664. 12 On this case: BRÜEL, International Straits cit., I, p. 104 eat seq. i3 The Bases of discussion on straits are numbered 15, 16 and 17. Together with govern- ments' replies on items VII, IX and X of the request for information, in S.d.N. (Conference pour la codification du droit international), Bases of discussion, II. pp. 55-6o, 65-75.

14 S.d.N. (Conference pour la codification du droit international), Actes, III, pp, 58-75, IIq.-IIB, 171-172. 15 S,d.N. (Conference pour la codification du droit international), Actes, I, annexes i and 2 to the second Commission's report, pp. 123-137, 165-i6q; III, pp. 209-231. is On this ambiguity, which characterizes the conventional practice of governments, in ascertaining the content of general international law, cf. GIULIANO, Diritto Internazionale cit., I, p. 303 et seq.

17 GIULIANO, La navigaxione aerea nel diritto internazionale generale, Milano, 1941, p. 169 et seq. (ibid. useful references to the convention on Turkish straits concluded at Montreux on July 30, 1936, which deeply changed the conventional regime on flights over straits). 18 On the subject the British Government's memorial of 30 September 1947 and reply of 30 July 1948, I.C.J. Pleadings (The Corfu Channel Case), I, p. 37 et seq.; and. II, p. 288 et seq. is LC.J. Reports, 1949, p. 28. Zo Commentary on the corresponding art. 17 of the International Law Commission's final draft, in U.N., Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1956, II, p. 273.

21 The 4th par. of the quoted International Law Commission's art. 17, in forbidding the suspension of the passage of ships through straits, made it clear that such a provision applied to straits which, connecting two tracts of the high seas, « normally serve international navigation. The dropping of the adverb was proposed by the United States at the Geneva Conference in 1958: U.N. (Conference on the Law of the Sea), Official Documents, III, Ge- neva, 1958, doc. A/CONF. 13/C.i/L.39. For the subsequent withdrawal of the amendment and for the acceptance of the proposal jointly sponsored by the Netherlands, Portugal and Great Britain, ibid., pp. 104-112. 22 On the subject, see the Albanian Government's countermemorial of 15 June 1948, and its duplique of 20 September 1948, in I.C.J. Pleadings (Corfu Channel Case), II, pp. 129-132, 3x5-3x7� 354-357. z3 I.C.J. Reports, 1949, p. 28 et seq.

24 Reference is made to the study already quoted above, note 6. 25 In general: BLOOMFIELD, Egypt, Israel and the Gulf of Aqaba in International Law, Toronto, 1957. For several references to State practice see also WHITEMAN, Digest cit., ], pp. 465-48o. For the French attitude Kiss, Repertoire cit., IV, p. rgq., n. 253. 26 On such a differentiation, namely on the exclusion of warships from the rule on innocent passage through the territorial sea, GIULIANO, Diritto lnternazionale, cit., II, p. 332 et seq.

27 Such a possibility is codified in par. 3 of Article 16 of the Geneva Convention 1958 on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone. The provision reads: « subject to the provi- sions of paragraph 4, the coastal State may, without discrimination amongst foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published ». z8 For some interesting points on the subject, e.g.: LEIFER-NELSON, « Conflict of Interest in the Straits of Malaccas, International Affairs (1963) pp. 190-203; MANI and BALUPURI, « Malacca Straits and International Law », Indian J.I.L. (1973) pp. 455-467. 29 The preparatory work of the third United Nations Conference on the law of the sea was entrusted to the Committee on the peacef ul uses o f the sea-bed and ocean floor beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, set up by the U.N. General Assembly in y67. The Committee annually presents a report, to which subsequent reference will be made as to: U.N., Report of the Committee.

30 For the text of the general Assembly's resolution, see Yearbook of the United Nations (1970) p. 8r et seq.; and pp. 60-83 for a general outline of the Assembly's proceedings and resolutions on the matter; see also doc. A/CONF. 62/28 of June 26, 1974, concerning the organization of the Caracas session and the « allocation of items » in the Conference. 31 Doc. A/AC. 138/SC. II/L.4, U.N., Report of the Committee cit., 1971, p. 24r et seq. 3z Doc. A/CONF.62/C.2/L.3 of July 3, 1974. 33 Doc. A/CONF.62/C.z/L.m of July 17, 1974. 34 Doc. A/ AC.138/SC.II/L.30 of July 16, 1973, U.N., Report of the Committee cit., 1973, III, p. 70; see also Rivista (1974) pp. 154-162. See also ibid. the statement made by the Italian delegate, Prof. Malintoppi.

3s Doc. A/ AC.138/SC.II/L.18, U.N. Report of the Committee cit., 1973, III, pp. 3-io. 3s Doc. A/CONF.62/C.2/L.i6.

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