EXHAUSTION OF DOMESTIC REMEDIES AND STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

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References

I On the domestic remedies rule in international customary law see, recently, STROZZI, "Ricorsi interni (regola del previo esaurimento dei)", EdD, Vol. XL, Milano, 1989, p. 705 ff.; AMERASRNGHE, Local Remedies in International Law, Cambridge, 1990; CANQADO TFJNDADE, O esgotamento de recursos internos no direito internacional, Brasilia, 1997. 2 (Article 22 proposed by Ago: "Epuisement des recours internes. II y a violation d'une obligation internationale requerant de I'Etat d'assurer un resultat consistant a reserver un traitement donne a des particuliers, personnes physiques ou morales, si, I'Etat ayant abouti par une premiere action ou omission a une situation incompatible avec le resultat requis, lesdits particuliers ont ensuite utilise et epuise sans succes les recours internes qui leur étaient ouverts et qui avaient 1'efficacit6 necessaire pour assurer que le traitement prevu pour ces particuliers leur soit encore reserve ou, au cas ou cela se r6v6lerait impossible, qu'un dedommagement

correspondant leur soit attribue. Par consequent la responsabilite intemationale a la charge de 1'Etat auteur de la premiere action ou omission et la possibilite de la faire valoir a son encontre ne s'6tablissent qu'a la suite d'un tel epuisement infructueux". See AGO, Sixieme rapport sur la responsabilite des Etats, ACDI, 1977, Vol. II, Premiere partie, p. 3 ff., para. 1 13. 3 AGO, Sixieme rapport, cit. supra note 2, paras. 104-105. 4 See Commission du droit international, Commentaire a 1'article 22, in Rapport de la Commission a I'Assembi6e generale sur le travaux de sa vingt-neuvieme session, ACDI, 1977, Vol. II, Deuxieme partie, p. 44 ff. 5 Article 22 of the ILC Draft of 1977: "Epuisement des recours internes. Lorsqu'un comportement d'un Etat a cree une situation non conforme au resultat requis de lui par une obligation intemationale concemant le traitement a reserver a des particuliers etrangers, personnes physiques ou morales, mais qu'il ressort de l'obligation que ce resultat ou un resultat equivalent peut neanmoins etre acquis par un comportement ulterieur de I'Etat, il n'y a violation de l'obligation que si les particuliers interesses ont epuise les recours intemes efficaces leur etant disponibles sans obtenir le traitement prevu par l'obligation ou, au cas ou cela n'etait pas possible, un traitement equivalent" See Commission du droit international, Commentaire a 1'article 22, cit. supra note 4, p. 31. 6 Art. 22 of ILC Draft of 1996: "Exhaustion of local remedies. When the conduct of a State has created a situation not in conformity with the result required of it by an international obligation concerning the treatment to be accorded to aliens, whether natural or juridical persons, but the obligation allows that this or an equivalent result may nevertheless be achieved by subsequent conduct of the State, there is a breach of the obligation only if the aliens concerned have exhausted the effective local remedies available to them without obtaining the treatment called for by the obligation or, where that is not possible, an equivalent treatment" See International Law Commission, Report of the ILC on the Work of its Forty-eight Session, YILC, 1996, Vol. II, Part Two, p. 60; RDI, 1997, pp. 587-588. 7 CRAWFORD, Second Report on State Responsibility, A/CN.4/498, p. 60 ff, paras. 147-148. $ Article 26 bis proposed by Crawford in 1999: "Exhaustion of local remedies. These articles are without prejudice to the requirement that, in the case of an international obligation concerning the treatment to be accorded by a State to foreign nationals or corporations, those

national or corporations should have exhausted any effective local remedies available to them in that State". See CRAWFORD, Second Report, cit. supra note 7, p. 67. 9 Article 46 ter proposed by Crawford in 2000: "invocation of responsibility by an injured State. 1. An injured State which seeks to invoke the responsibility of another State under these articles shall give notice of its claim to that State and should specify: (a) what conduct on the part of the responsible State is in its view required to ensure cessation of any continuing wrongful act, in accordance with Article 36 bis; (b) what form reparation should take. 2. The responsibility of a State may not be invoked under paragraph 1 if: (a) the claim is not brought in accordance with any applicable rule relating to the nationality of claims; (b) the claim is one to which the rule of exhaustion of local remedies applies, and any effective local remedies available to the person or entity on whose behalf the claim is brought have not been exhausted" See CitAwFOtt�, Third Report on State Responsibility, A/CN.4/507/Add.2, p. 30. 10 Article 45 of the Draft articles provisionally adopted by the Drafting Committee in 2000: "Admissibility of claims. The responsibility of a State may not be invoked if: (a) The claim is not brought in accordance with any applicable rule relating to the nationality of claims; (b) The claim is one to which the rule of exhaustion of local remedies applies, and any available and effective local remedy has not been exhausted" See International Law Commission, State Responsibility, Draft Articles Provisionally Adopted by the Drafting Committee on Second Reading, A/CN.4/L.600, p. 136.

11 Art. 41(l)(c). 12 Arts. 2 and 5(2)(b). 13 Arts. 11(3) and 14(7)(a). 14 Arts. 46( 1 )(a) and 46(2). �5 Arts. 50 and 56(5). 16 Arts. 21(1)(c) and 22(5)(b). 17 Art. 4(1). ). 18 Art. 6(b)(1). 19 Art. 4(b). 20 Para. 14(a)(ix).

21 See MERON, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law, Oxford, 1989, p. 180.

22 See AMERASINGHE, cit. supra note 1, pp. 78-79. z3 CANCADO Trindade, The Application of the Rule of Exhaustion of Local Remedies in International Law, Its Rationale in the International Protection of Individual Rights, Cambridge et a]., 1983, p. 131 ff. 24 See AGO, Sixieme rapport, cit. supra note 2, paras. 93, 104-105. 25 See MERON, cit. supra note 21, p. 180 ff.

26 Ibidem, p. 182. 27 See PIsILLO MAZZESCFU, "Trattati e consuetudine neIla codificazione del diritto internazionale", CI, 1994, p. 196 ff.; ID., "Treaty and Custom: Reflections on the Codification of International Law", Commonwealth Law Bulletin, 1997, p. 549 ff 28 It is enough to mention the case law on Article 26 (now Art. 35) of the European Convention on Human Rights. On this norm see especially Tampieri, "Illecito internazionale e previo esaurimento dei ricorsi interni nella convenzione europea dei diritti dell'uomo", in CARLASSARE (ed.), Le garanzie giurisdizionali dei diritti fondamentali, Padova, 1988, p. 235 ff.; ARONOVITZ, "L'art. 26 della Convenzione europea dei diritti dell'uomo: dal diritto intemazionale consuctudinario al sistema europeo dei diritti dell'uomo", RIDU, 1994, p. 515 ff.; PISILLO MAZZESCHI, GRANATA and RAIMONDI, "Articolo 35", in BARTOLE, CONFORTI and RAIMONDI (eds.), Commentario della Convenzione europea dei diritti dell 'uomo, Padova, 2001, p. 555 ff

29 For a survey of these theories, and the pertinent bibliographic references, see especially AGO, "La regola del previo esaurimento dei ricorsi interni in tema di responsabilita intemazionale", Archivio di diritto pubblico, 1938, p. 178 ff., espec. pp. 186-224; ID., Sixieme rapport, cit. supra note 2, para. 54; AMERASINGHE, "The Formal Character of the Rule of Local Remedies", ZAORV, 1965, p. 445 ff.; ID., cit. supra note 1, p. 319 ff.; GAJA, L'esaurimento dei ricorsi interni nel diritto internazionale, Milano, 1967, p. 5 ff.; STROZZI, Interessi statali e interessi

privati nell'ordinamento internazionale. La funzione del previo esaurimento dei ricorsi interni, Milano, 1977, p. 68 fl:; ID., cit. supra note 1, p. 707 ff. 3° See especially ORCHARD, The Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad or the Law of International Claims, New York, 1928, p. 817 ff ; ID., "Theoretical Aspects of the International Responsibility of States", ZAORV, 1929, p. 223 ff , 230 ff. 31 AGO, cit. supra note 29, espec. p. 223 ff; ID., "Le delit international", RCADI, 1939, 11, p. 506 ff.; ID., "Observations", Annuaire de l'Institut de droit international, 1954, 1, p. 34 ff.; ID., cit. supra note 2, para. 47 ff.

3z See AGO, Septieme rapport sur la responsabilite des Etats, ACDI, 1978, Vol. II, Premiere partie, paras. 20-50. See also Art. 24(5) of the Draft proposed by Ago, ibidem, para. 50; and Art. 25(3) of the Draft approved by the ILC in 1978, in Commission du droit international, Rapport de la commission a I'Assemblde generate sur les travaux de sa trentieme session, ACDI, 1978, VoI. II, Deuxieme partie, p. 101. 33 See AGO, "Le d6lit", cit. supra note 31, p. 506 ff. 34 CrtnwFORD, Second Report, cit. supra note 7, p. 3I . 1. 3s Art. 21 proposed by Ago: "Violation d'une obligation internationale requerant de 1'Etat l 'obtention d 'un resultat. 1. II y a violation d'une obligation intemationale requerrant de I'Etat d'assurer in concreto un certain resultat, tout en le laissant libre de choisir au depart le moyen d'y parvenir, si, par le comportement adopte dans le cadre de cette liberte de choix, I'Etat n'a pas abouti concretement a la realisation du resultat intemationalement requis. 2. Dans les cas ou l'obligation intemationale permet a I'Etat dont un premier comportement a abouti a une situation incompatible avec le resultat vise de remedier a cette situation, soit en realisant par un nouveau comportement le resultat originairement requis, soit en assurant a la place de celui-ci un resultat equivalent, il y a violation de l'obligation si en plus I'Etat a manque a utiliser cette possibilite ulterieure et a par la complete le debut de violation represente par son premier comportement" See AGO, Sixieme rapport, cit. supra note 2, para. 46. For the text of Art. 22 proposed by Ago, see supra note 2.

36 Ibidem, paras. 14 ff. and 47 ff.; Commission du droit international, Rapport de la Commission a I'Assemblee g6n6rale sur les travaux de sa vingt-neuvieme session, cit. supra note 4, pp. 20 ff. and 31 ff. '� See espec. DE VISSCHER (CH.), "Le deni de justice en droit international", RCADI, 1935, II, p. 369 ff.; PANAYOTACOS, La r�gle de I'epuisement des voies de recours internes, Marseille, 1952, espec. p. 28 ff., 113 ff.; LAW, The Local Remedies Rule in International Law, Geneve/Paris, 1961, espec. p. 32 ff., 131 ff.; AMERAS�GHE, cit. supra note 29; ID., cit. supra note 1, p. 319 ff. 38 See especially EUSTATHIAOÉS, La responsabilite internationale de 1'Etat pour les actes des organes judiciaires et le probleme du dini de justice en droit international, Paris, 1936, espec. p. 243 ff., 331 ff., 341 ff.; FREEMAN, The International Responsibility of States for Denial of Justice, London et al., 1938, p. 407 ff.; FAWCETT, "The Exhaustion of Local Remedies: Substance or Procedure?", BYIL, 1954, p. 452 ff.

'9 See especially AMERASINGHE, cit. supra note 29, p. 47 ff. 40 See, e.g., AGO, Sixieme rapport, cit. supra note 2, paras. 78-80.

41 Societe des Nations, Conference pour la codification du droit international, Bases de discussion etablies par le Comite preparatoire a !'intention de la Conference, Vol. III, Responsabilite des Etats en ce qui conceme les dommages causes sur leur territoire a la personne ou aux biens des etrangers (C.75. M.69. 1929.V), p. 136ff.. 42 Societe des Nations, Actes de la Conference pour la codification du droit international, Vol. IV, Procès-verbaux de la Troisième Commission (C.351 1 (c) M. 145 (c), 1930.V), pp. 63 ff., 162 ff. 43 For a survey of such State practice see also AGO, Sixieme rapport, cit. supra note 2, paras. 55-57; AMERASINGHE, cit. supra note 1, p. 337 ff. 44 PCIJ Series C, No. 70, 1933, p. 134 ff. 45 PCIJ Series C, No. 85, 1938, pp. 1231 ff., 1332 ff.

46 ICJ Pleadings, 1957, p. 185 ff. 47 PCIJ Series C, No. 85, 1938, p. 1048. 48 ICJ Pleadings, 1957, p. 138 ff. 49 ICJ Pleadings, 1959, pp. 405, 564. 50 ICJ Pleadings, 1959, pp. 316 ff., 501, 618. 51 United Nations, Reports of Intemational Arbitral Awards, Vol. V, p. 122. 52 PCIJ Series A/B, No. 76, 1939, p. 47. 53 ICJ, Reports, 1959, p. 45 ff. 54 ICJ Reports, 1964, p. 114 ff.

ss Inland v. UK, United Nations, Reports of International Arbitral Awards, Vol. III, pp. 1488, 1501, 1502. See also AMERASINGHE, cit. supra note 1, p. 344 ff. sb Greece v. UK, United Nations, Reports of International Arbitral Awards, Vol. XII, p. 118 ff. 57 PCIJ Series A/B, No. 74, 1938, p. 28. See also AMERAStt�GHE, cit. supra note 1, pp. 347-350, and, for a contrary view, AGO, Sixieme rapport, cit. supra note 2, para. 69. 58 ICJ Reports, 1959, pp. 26-27. 59 See WYLER, L'illicite et la condition des personnes privees. La responsabilite internationale en droit coutumier et dans la Convention europeenne des droits de I 'homme, Paris, 1995, p. 69. 60 ICJ Reports, 1970, p. 143. 61 ICJ Reports, 1957, pp. 38, 41. See also AMERAS�rrGHE, cit. supra note 1, p. 352 ff. 62 ICJ Reports, 1959, pp. 88-89.

6' For similar comments see WYLER, cit. supra note 59, p. 83. 64 Austria v. Italy, No. 788/60, Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights, 1961, p. 148. bs X v. Federal Republic of Germany, No. 235/56, Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights, 1958, p. 304. 66ireland v. UK, Ser. A, Vol. 25, 1978, p. 91. 67 See, e.g., Foti and others, Ser. A, Vol. 56, 1982, p. 21 ; Zimmerman and Steiner, Ser. A, Vol. 66, 1983, p. 12.

68 See supra, para. 3. I . 69 Commission du droit international, Rapport de la Commission a I'Assembl6e generate sur les travaux de sa vingt-neuvieme session, cit. supra note 4, p.20 ff., espec. pp. 23-28, 30-31. 70 Norris Case, Scr. A, Vol. 142, 1988, para. 31. See also the other judgments cited by CRAWFORD, Second report, cit. supra note 7, p. 32, note 142. 71 See E.W. and others v. Netherlands, Doc. CCPR/C/47/D/429/1990 (1993), paras. 6.3., 6.4; and the other cases cited by CRAWFORD, Second Report, cit. supra note 7, p. 32, note 144.

72 Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Ser. A, No. 12, 1991, paras. 41-43; also in ILM, 1995, pp. 1199-1201. 73 See C�tAwFORn, Second Report, cit. supra note 7, p. 31. 1. 74 On these decisions see also WYLER, cit. supra note 59, p. 85 ff. �5 Donnelly and six others v. United Kingdom, No. 5577-5583/72, DR, 1976, Vol. 4, p. 4 ff, p. 78.

'6 See WYLER, cit. supra note 59, pp. 86-87. "Eckle case, Ser. A, Vol. 51, 1982, p. 30 off. 78 See WYLER, cit. supra note 59, p. 87. 79 Ibidem.

80 See REUTER, La responsabilite internationale, Droit international public (cours), Paris, 1955-56, p. 56 ff.; Cot�tsnCAU, Obligations de resultat et obligations de comportement. Quelgues questions et pas de reponse, Melanges offers a Paul Reuter, Paris, 1981, p. 181 ff., espec. 193-198; PISILLO MAZZESCIU, "Due Diligence" e responsabilita internazionale degli Stati, Milano, 1989; ID., "The Due Diligence Rule and the Nature of the International Responsibility of States", GYIL, 1992, p. 9 ff.; ID., "Forms of International Responsibility for Environmental Harm", in FItANCIONI and SCOVAZZI (eds.), International Responsibility for Environmental Harm, London et a]., 1991, p. 15 ff.; LEFESEIt, Transboundary Environmental Interference and the Origin ofState Liability, The Hague et a]., 1996, p. 61 ff. 81 See Cot�tsncAU, cit. supra note 80, p. 198; SALMON, "Le fait etatique complexe: une notion contestable", AFD1, 1982, p. 709 ff, pp. 724-725; CoNFOR'ri, "Obblighi di mezzi e obblighi di risultato nelle convenzioni di diritto uniforme", RDIPP, 1988, pp. 233-234; CRAWFORD, Second Report, cit. supra note 7, pp. 25-26. See also TOMUSCHAT, "What Is a "Breach" of the European Convention on Human Rights?", in The Dynamics of the Protection ofHuman Rights in Europe - Essays in Honour ofH.G. Schermers, Vol. III, Dordrecht et al., 1994, p. 315 ff.; DclPUY (P.-M.), "Reviewing the Difficulties of Codification: On Ago's Classification of Obligations of Means and Obligations of Result in Relation to State Responsibility", EJIL, 1999, p. 371 ff.

82 SALMON, cit. supra note 81, p. 727. $3 CRAWFORD, Second Report, cit. supra note 7, p. 36. See also CotvtsnCnu, cit. supra note 80, p. 200. 84 See SALMON, cit. supra note 81, p. 727 ff. 85 CRAWFORD, Second Report, cit. supra note 7, p. 31. 86 See supra note 69.

87 SALMON, cit. supra note 81, p. 735, speaks of "droits qui ne sont pas encore definitivement nes" 88 See supra note 69.

89 See supra note 6. 90 See supra note 2. 91 See supra note 8. 92 See supra note 10.

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