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I GU No. 248 of 24 October 2001. Cf. also infra Legislation XVIII. 2 The common view is that the first paragraph of Article 10 makes general international law formally applicable within the State and ensures its supremacy over domestic legislation. Insofar as treaties relating to the legal status of aliens are concerned, they need to be incorporated into the Italian system through an ad hoc legal act (so-called ordine di esecuzione, implementation order) like any other international agreement. This is accepted even by those judicial decisions and legal doctrines that advocate the supremacy of such treaties over domestic legislation. 3 Cf. Constitutional Court, 23 November 1967, No. 120. 4 Cf. LA PERGOLA, Costituzione e adattamento dell'ordinamento interno al diritto internazionale, Milano, 1961, p. 320 ff.; CASSESE, "L'efficacia delle norme italiane di adattamento alia Convenzione curopea dei diritti dell'uomo", RDIPP, 1969, p. 932 ff.;

BERNARDFNI, Formazione delle norme internazionali e adattamento del diritto interno, Pescara, 1973, p. 167 f., 183; CRISAFULLI, Lezioni di diritto costituzionale, Vol. II, 2, Padova, 1974, p. 120; CASSESE, "La condizione giuridica dello straniero", in BRANCA (ed.), Commentario al codice civile, Bologna, 1975, p. 515 ff.; ZAGREBELSKY, Manuale di diritto costituzionale, I, Torino, 1990, p. 124 f. 5 According to these commentators, treaties prevail over domestic legislation only when incorporated into the national legal order. Thus, the relevant rule stemming from Article 10, first paragraph, was pacta recepta sunt servanda, rather than pacta sunt servanda. For the constitutional unlawfulness of legislation inconsistent with pacta recepta, cf. ZANNINI, "Dell'inserimento della normativa comunitaria negli ordinamenti degli Stati membri", Diritto internazionale, 1964, I, p. 263; BARILE (P.), "Rapporti tra norme primarie comunitarie e norme costituzionali e primarie italiane", CI, 1966, p. 16 ff; Biscottini, "Considerazioni suIla rilevanza degli atti comunitari nell'ordinamento italiano", RDIPP, 1969, p. 606 ff.; ID., "Questioni vecchie e nuove in tema di ordine di esecuzione dei trattati", RDI, 1974, p. 221 ff.; BARILE (P.), "Rilievi sull'adattamento automatico del diritto intemo al diritto intemazionale convenzionale", Studi parmensi, 1977, p. 1 ff.; SPAGNA Musso, Diritto costituzionale, 4th ed., Padova, 1992, p. 283 ff. Even more radical, but isolated, was the opinion advocated by QUADRI (cf. most recently Diritto internazionale pubblico, 5th ed., Napoli, 1968, p. 64 ff.): according to this Author, Article 10 - hence the pacta sunt servanda rule - also implied that the ordine di esecuzione (namely, domestic legislation or other ad hoc legal instruments: cf. supra n. 2) was not necessary in order to give treaties legal effect within the domestic system.

6 In more detail and for references to case law, of CONFORTI, Diritto internazionale, 6th ed., Napoli 2002, p. 321 ff. � Cf. CANNIZZARO, "La riforma 'federalista' della Costituzione e gli obblighi internazionali", RDI, 2001, p. 921 ff., p. 924; cf. also PiNELLI, "I limiti generali alia potesta legislativa statale e regionale e i rapporti con l'ordinamento internazionale e con l'ordinamento comunitario", Foro It., 2001, V, p. 194 ff.

8 Cannizzaro, ibid., p. 924 ff. 9 Cf. CONFORT and LABELLA, "Invalidation and Termination of Treaties: The Role of National Courts", EJIL, 1990, p. 44 ff., p. 52 f. 10 See again CANNIZZARO, cit. supra n. 7, p. 930 ff.

� � For more detail on the theory developed by the Constitutional Court after several revirements, of CONFORTI, Diritto internazionale, cit. supra n. 6, p. 337 ff. 12 Decision No. 170/1984, para. 7. �3 Cf. decisions of 9 April 1963, No. 49; 8 July 1969, No. 120; 10 November 1994, No. 384.

14 GU No. 167 of 19 July 1994.


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