' See Tnrvls, "All's Well That Ends Well", ZAORV, 2002, p. 76U it. 2 This point is especially underlined by BROWN WEISS, "Invoking State Responsibility in the Twenty-First Century", AJIL, 2002, p. 798 ff., passim. See also TAMS, cil. supra note 1, pp. 762-763. 3 non these developments see PISILLO MAZZESCHI, Esaurimento dei ricorsi interni e diritti omani, Torino, 2004, pp.16-36. ' This progressive overcoming is largely due to the influence of the international proteetion of human rights. On this point see SIMMA, "International Human Rights and General International
Law: A Comparative Analysis", Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law, Vol. IV, Book 2, The Hague-Boston-London, 1995, p.I53 ff., espec. pp. 167-173. 5 See PISILLO MAZZESCHT, cit. supra note 3, pp. 18-36. As it is well known, the international crimes of States are now described by the Draft Articles as "serious breaches of obligations under peremptory norms of general international law" (see Chapter III of the Draft). ' On the contrary, some writers maintain that the ILC Draft Articles on State Responsibility constitute a development in favour of human rights and of the individual insofar as they deal with the protection of community interests. See SIMMA, "Staatenverantwortlichkeit und Menschenrechte im ILC-Entwurf 2001 ", in FROWEINETAL. (Hrsg.), Verhandeln fiir den Frieden/Negotiating for Peace: Liber amicorum Tono Eitel, Berlin, 2003, p. 423 ff., passim.
8 On this point see the papers of various writers (P.-M. Dupuy, NOLTE, SPUNEDI, S1C1LIANOS, WYLER, TAMS, GATTINI, SCOBBIE, ALLAND, KLE1N) collected in "Symposium: Assessing the Work of the International Law Commission on State Responsibility", EJIL, 2002, p. 1053 ff. 9 See PELLET, "The New Draft Articles of the International Law Commission on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts: A Requiem for States' Crimes?", NYIL, 2001, p. 55 ff., espec. pp. 61-67; WYLER, "From 'State Crime' to Responsibility for 'Serious Breaches of Obligations under Peremptory Norms of General International Law"', in "Symposium", cit. supra note 8, p. 1147 ff. 10 On the theoretical problems brought forth by the distinction between injured States and States other than an injured State see, recently, STERN, "Et si on utilisait le concept de preju- dice juridique? Retour sur une notion d6laiss6e a l'occasion de la fin des travaux de la CDI sur la responsabilit6 des Etats", AFDI, 2001, p. 3 ff., espec. p. 19 ff. On this topic see also, with a more favourable position for the Draft Articles, KOSKENNIEMI, "Solidarity Measures: State Responsibility As a New International Order?", BYIL, 2001, p. 337 ff n This is recognized also by StMMA, cit. supra note 7, pp. 446-447. On this point see also PILL1TU, "Le sanzioni dell'Unione e della Comunita europea nei confronti dello Zimbabwe e di esponenti del suo Governo per gravi violazioni dei diritti umani e dei principi democratici", RDI, 2003, p. 55 ff., pp. 96-97.
12 PISILLO MAZZESCHI, cit. supra note 3, pp. 24-35. See also ID., "La dottrina pura del diritto di Kelsen e la realta del diritto internazionale contemporaneo", Diritto e cultura, 1994, p. 43 ff., espec. pp. 58-64. This latter article (reproducing a paper given at a conference on philosophy of law) has recently been the object of a very burning, but not impartial, criticism by ARANGio-Ruiz, "Dualism Revisited. International Law and Interindividual Law", RDI, 2003, p. 909 ff., p. 966, note 92. The distinguished writer defends his "radical" dualism and especially his famous and often expounded theory on the State internationally conceived as a "de.facto collective entity" (or as a "real person" or as a "power"). In order to better perform this defense, he attributes to me certain opinions (espousal tout court of the monistic theory) and affirmations (no difference between the concept of the State as a legal person and as a real one) I never expressed. " See, for an examination of the several doctrinal views, DOMINICÉ, "L'emergence de l'individu en droit international public", Annales d'etudes internationales, 1988, p. 1 ff. " LaGrand Case (Germany v USA), Merits, 27 June 2001, ICJ Reports, 2001, p. 466 ff. and reproduced in ILM, 2001, p. 1069 ff. " Caste Concerning Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. USA), 31 March 2004, reproduced in ILM, 2004, p. 581 ff. 16 "The Right to Information on Consular Assistance in the Framework of the Guarantees of the Due Process of Law", Advisory Opinion OC- 16/99 of I October 1999, Inter-American Yearbook on Human Rights, 1999, Vol. 4, p. 4364 ff.
" International Law Commission, Fifty-sixth session, A/CN.4/L.647, 24 May 2004, pp. 6-7. See also the Statement of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, Mr. Rodriguez-Cedeno, pp. 25-27, available at http://www.un.org/law/ilc. IS On this point see also CRAWFORD, "The ILC's Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts: A Retrospect", AJIL, 2002, p. 874 ff., p. 888; BROWN WEISS, cit. supra note 2, p. 804; SIMMA, cit. supra note 7, p. 432.
'9 See Commentary to Article 33, para. 4 (in Report of the ILC, Fifty-third session, LTN GAOR, Fifty-sixth session, Supp. No. 10 (A/56/10), p. 234 ff.), where it is stated: "In cases where the primary obligation is owed to a non-State entity, it may be that some procedure is available whereby that entity can invoke the responsibility on its own account and without the intermediation of any State. This is true, for example, under human rights treaties which provide a right of petition to a court or some other body for individuals affected. It is also true in the case of rights under bilateral or regional investment protection agreements". See also BROWN WEISS, cil. sitpra note 2, p. 815.
20 See ORREGO V1CUNA, Interim Report on "The Changing Law of Nationality of Claims", ILA, Report of the Sixty-Ninth Conference, London, 2000, p. 63I ff., espec. pp. 632-634. 2t Let me take the liberty of citing the following articles: PISILLO MAZZESCH1, "International Obligations to Provide for Reparation Claims?", in PANDELZHOFER and TOMUSCHAT (eds.), Slate Responsibility and the Individuals: Reparation in Instance of Grave Violations of Hitman Rights, The Hague-London-Boston, 1999, p. 149 ff., espec. p. 152 ff., p. 157 ff. and p. 165 ff.; ID., "La riparazione per violazione dei diritti umani nel diritto internazionale e nella Convenzione europea", CI, 1998, p. 215 ff., espec. p. 218 ff, p. 224 ff. and p. 230 ff.; ID-, "Reparation Claims by Individuals for State Breaches of Humanitarian Law and Human Rights: An Overview", JICJ, 2003, p. 339 ff. ZZ See BARTOL.INI, La riparazione per violazione dei dirilli umani nell'ordinamenlo interna- zionale (Ph.d. thesis), Roma, 2004, espec. pp. 296-3I7.
2J See PISILLO MAZZESCHI, "Reparation Claims", cit. supra note 21. On this topic see also, recently, F2U��r, "When Are States Liable Towards Individuals for Serious Violations of Humanitarian Law? The Markovic Case", JICJ, 2003, p. 406 ff., espec. pp. 422-427; BEN- NAFTALI and MICIIAELI, "Justice-Ability: A Critique of the Alleged Non-Justiciability of Israel's Policy of Targeted Killings", ibidem, p. 368 ff.; and, for a different view, G,4TTIl·�r, "To What Extent Are State Immunity and Non-Justiciability Major Hurdles to Individuals' Claims for War Damages?", ihidem, p. 348 ff., pp. 350-351; ID., Le riparazioni di guerra nel diritto internazio- nale, Padova, 2003, p. 625 ff. and pp. 667-668. 24 Corte di Cas.sazione (Sezioni Unite civili), 11 March 2004, No. 5044, Feyrini v Federal Republic o/' Germany, reproduced in RDI, 2004, p. 539 ff. Cf. infra in this volume IOVANE, "The Ferrini Judgment of the Italian Supreme Court: Opening Up Domestic Courts to Claims of Reparation for Victims of Serious Violations of Fundamental Human Rights". See also Judgment No. 11/2000 of the Greek Supreme Court (Areios Pagos) of 4 May 2000, Prefecture of voiotia la Federal Republic ofGermany, reproduced (in the Greek version) in Nomiko Vima, Vol. 49, 2001, p. 212 ff.; and the first comments by MICHA, YIHL, Vol. 3, 2000, p. 511 ff.; and by GAVOUNELr and BANTEKAS, AJIL, 2001, p. 198 ff. More in general, on the law suits following the Distomo massacre, see GATTINI, "To What Extent", cit. supra note 23, pp. 356-362.
zs Another saving clause that according to some writers (BROWN WEISS, cit. supra note 2, pp. 815-816) could work in order "to save" the topic of State responsibility towards the individual is Article 55, according to which the Draft Articles do not apply when the international responsibil- ity of a State is governed by special rules of international law. 26 Commentary to Art. 33, para. 4, cit. supra note 19. 27 Ibidem. See also CRAWFORD, cit. supra note 18, p. 888 f£ 2� CRAWFORD, ibidem,. zy For a similar, but more elaborate proposal, see BROWN WEISS, cit. supra note 2, p. 816 ff. See also, recently, DOMINICE, "La pretention de la personne privee dans le systeme de la respon- sabilite internationale des Etats", in Studi di diritto internazionale in o�rore di Gaetano Arangio- Ruiz, Vol. II, Napoli, 2004, p. 729 ff., espec. p. 734 ff. 3U See PISILLO MAZZESCHI, "La dottrina pura", cit. supra note 12, pp. 59-63; ID., cit. supra note 3, pp. 28-30; BROWN WEISS, Cit. supra note 2, p. 909 ff.
" More precisely, the writers who are in favour of the substantive nature of the rule prefer its systematic arrangement in the framework of State responsibility, while the writers in favour of the procedural nature of the rule prefer its collocation in the field of settlement of disputes. 12 See, e.g., Art. 35.1 of the European Convention on Human Rights; Art. 4 1. I.c of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Arts. 2 and 5.2.b of its Optional Protocol; Arts. 1 l.3 and 14.7 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Arts. 46.1.a and 46.2 of the American Convention on Human Rights; Arts. 50 and 56.5 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights; Arts. 2 1. I.c and 22.5.b of the Convention Against Torture and Other Cmel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. See also, in general and for the case-law, PISILLO MAZZESCHI, cil. supra note 3, passim. " 1 do not agree with the substantive theory on the nature of the rule maintained by Special Rapporteur Ago, however. See PISILLO MAZZESCHI, cit. supra note 3, espec. Chap. 11; ID., "Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies and State Responsibility for Violation of Human Rights", IYIL, Vol. X, 2000, p. 17 ff.
" For violation both of norms on human rights and of contemporary norms on aliens' pro- tection. 's According to which the rule of exhaustion of domestic remedies must be considered a rule of procedure; that is, a condition for exercising the right to resort to international procedures of dispute settlement. Actually, the collocation of Article 44.b in the Chapter on the invocation of responsibility (and the criticism by the last Special Rapporteur, Crawford, of the theory of the first Rapporteur, Ago, who was in favour of the substantive nature of the rule) cause one to think that the final Draft is implicitly in favour of the procedural theory on the nature of the rule. '6 Entitled "Individual responsibility"
"Article 45.2.d of the Draft approved in 1996 (in UN Doc. A/51/10, YILC, 1996, 11.2, p. 63) established that satisfaction may take the form of disciplinary action against, or punishment of, those responsible, when the internationally wrongful act arose from the serious misconduct of officials, or from the criminal conduct of officials or private parties. J8 And not only through the above-mentioned saving clause of Article 58. J9 See PELLET, cit. supra note 9, p. 77, who rightly speaks of the principle of "transparency of the State", which can "entail criminal consequences when the leaders of a state responsible for an internationally wrongful act are brought before a criminal court, either national or interna- tional, to account for their acts". See also ID., "Remarques sur une revolution inachevee: le projet d'articles de la CDI sur la responsabilite des etats", AFDI, 1996, p. 25 ff.
4U See, for instance, SIMMA, Cil. supra note 7, passim. This writer, at that time a member of the ILC, even maintained that the protection of human rights had constituted a lighthouse which had always led ILC work on State responsibility, in an oral intervention at the Conference on "Breaches of Obligations under Peremptory Norms of General International Law and the International Responsibility of States" (EUI and EJIL, Florence, 7-8 December 2001 ). 41 See supra note 28.