1 1Researcher, European University Institute (EUI). This article builds upon my presentation at the International Conference "The EU, the US and the Reform of the United Nations Charter: Challenges and Perspectives", EUI, Florence, 21-22 October 2005 (see MATARAZZO and REBASTI (rapporteurs), Report of the International Conference, Istituto Affari Intemazionali IAI0543, available online at http://www.iai.it/sections/pubblicazioni/documenti_iai/doc_iai_2005.asp), and several discussions held in the framework of the EUI Working Group on Environmental Law in 2005 (see MORGERA, "The 2005 World Summit: UN Reforms and the Protection of the Environment", in WORKING GROUP ON ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, The Future of Environmental Law: International and European Perspectives, EUI Working Papers LAW No. 2006/01, 2006, p. 15 ff.). The author wishes to thank for their insights and comments: Prof. Francesco Francioni, Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI, Hugh Wilkins, Chris Spence, Charlotte Salpin, Elsa Tsioumani, Alessandro Fusacchia, Graciela Marin Durán, Laura Zanotti, and Raffaele Marchetti.
I The 2005 UN World Summit (High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on the Follow-up to the Outcome of the Millennium Summit) took place on 14-16 September 2005, at the UN headquarters in New York. Its purpose was to undertake a comprehensive review of the progress made towards the commitments articu- lated in the UN Millennium Declaration and in the integrated and coordinated implementation of the outcomes and commitments of the major UN conferences and summits in the economic, social, and related fields. The Summit also considered possible reforms of the UN, to adapt the organiza- tion to new realities and define specific tasks in this respect. See UNGA Resolution "Follow-up to the Outcome of the Millennium Summit and Integrated and Coordinated Implementation of and Follow-up to the Outcomes of the Major United Nations Conferences and Summit in the Economic and Social Fields", UN Doc. A/RES/58/291, 17 May 2004. 2 World Summit Outcome, UN Doc. A/60/1, 24 October 2005 (hereinafter, Outcome Document). For an overview of the negotiations of the Outcome Document, see TSIOUMANI, "2005 World Summit -A Briefing Note", Environmental Policy and Law, 2005, p. 150 ff.
3IUCN statement to the informal meeting of the plenary of the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly of September 2005, 21 June 2005, New York; and WWF press release "Getting the environment back on the World Summit agenda", 14 September 2005, New York. 4 UNGA, Resolution "United Nations Millennium Declaration", UN Doc. A/RES/55/2, 18 September 2000 (hereinafter, Millennium Declaration). 5 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/index.asp.
6 ArrNAN, "In Larger Freedom: Decision Time at the UN", Foreign Affairs, 2005, p. 63 ff. 7 Report of the UN Secretary-General "Road Map towards the Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration", UN Doc. A/56/326, 6 September 2001. 8 The EU "MDG Package", launched in April 2005, is based upon three Communications of the European Commission: "Accelerating Progress towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals - The European Union's Contribution", COM(2005) 132, Brussels, 7 October 2005; "Policy Coherence for Development - Accelerating Progress towards Attaining the Millennium Development Goals", COM(2005) 134, Brussels, 12 April 2005; "Accelerating Progress towards Attaining the Millennium Development Goals - Financing for Development and Aid Effectiveness", COM(2005) 133, Brussels, 7 October 2005. 9 WORLD BANK, The Environment and the Millennium Development Goals, Washington D.C., 2002.
10 Compare with the so-called "2010 target", i.e. "to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national levels as a conMbu- tion to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth", which was endorsed by the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in para. 44 of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI). " BOJÖ and CHANDRA REDDY, PovertyReduction Strategies and the Millennium Development Goal on Environmental Sustainability: Opportunities forAlignment, World Bank Environmental Economics Series Paper No. 92, Washington DC, 2003. 'z Summary of the twentieth session of the Governing Council of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme: 4-8 April 2005, Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB), Vol. 11, No. 54, 11 1 April 2005, p. 9. "At the UNEP Governing Council, the President's Summary, UN Doc. LJNEP/GC.23/L.3/ Rev. 1, 24 February 2005, covers: environment and poverty (MDG-1 ); environmental sustainabil- ity in relation to water, sanitation and human settlements (MDG-7); and gender and environment (MDG-3). The fifth meeting of the Joint Liaison Group, 30 January 2004 in Bonn, recognised that the Rio Conventions had the common objective of contributing to sustainable development and the MDGs (see report of the meeting available online at http://www.biodiv.org/cooperation/ liason.shtml). UNFCCC COP-9 created the special climate fund and the least-developed coun- try fund to achieve WSSD objectives and the MDGs (decisions 5/CP9 and 6/CP9 contained in UN DoFCCC/CP/2003/6/Add.l); and CBD decision UNEP/CBD/COP/7/32 ("The programme of work of the Convention and the Millennium Development Goals") recognized links between MDG-1 and 7.
14 Report of the UN Secretary-General "Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration", UN Doc. A/59/282, 27 August 2004. 'S UNDP, Environmental Sustainability in 100 Millennium Development Goal Country Reports, New York, June 2005. 16 Summary of the twenty-third session of the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum: 21-25 February 2005, ENB, Vol. 16, No. 47, 28 February 2005. " Summary of the third session of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification: 2-11 May 2005, ENB, Vol. 4, No. 175, 13 May 2005. '8 Summary of the twentieth session of the Governing Council of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, cit. supra note 12. 19 UNEP Division of Environmental Conventions (DEC), Divided, Yet United, discussion pa- per presented at the High-Level Workshop on Mainstreaming Environment beyond MDG-7, 13- 14 July 2005, Nairobi. See also WORLD BANK, Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The Environment and the Millennium Development Goals, Washington DC, 2002. 20 UNEP DEC, ibidem.
21 http://www.biodiv.org/cooperation/related-conventionslblg.shtml. The treaties partici- pating in the Biodiversity Liaison Group are: CBD, Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, the World Heritage Convention and the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 22 Available online at www.ramsar.org/wn/w.n.biodiv5_mdg.htm. report of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change "A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility", UN Doc. A/59/565, 2 December 2004 (hereinafter, High- Level Panel's report). 24 Ibidem, p. 12.
zs Ibidem, para. 54. zb Ibidem, paras. 59, 60 and 63. 27 Ibidem, paras. 22 and 53. 28 Ibidem, paras. 71-72. z9 See, for example, the UN Security Council action on the illegal exploitation of natural re- sources in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where such exploitation was directly linked to the funding of the armed conflict: "Final Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo", UN Doc. S/2002/1146 Annex 16 October 2002; and Letter dated 23 October 2003 from the UN Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council (Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo), UN Doc. S/2003/1027, 23 October 2003.
30 High-Level Panel's report, para. 73. 31 FRANCIONI, "The Role of the EU in Promoting Reform of the UN in the Field of Human Rights and Environmental Protection", in The European Union and the United Nations, Chaillot Paper No. 78, Institute of Security Studies, Paris, 2005, p. 31 ff., p. 42. '2 Summary of the International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States: 10-14 January 2005, ENB, Vol. 8, No. 47, 17 January 2005, p. 3. 33 Report of the UN Secretary-General "In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All", UN Doc. A/59/2005, 21 March 2005 (hereinafter, In Larger Freedom). 34 Ibidem, para. 5. 35 Ibidem, para. 14. 36 Ibidem, paras. 60-61. 37 Ibidem, para. 212.
'8 Ibidem, paras. 57-59. 39 Ibidem, Annex "For decision by Heads of State and Government", paras. 55-62. °° Ibidem, paras. k-i. 41 Pn·rG, Letter to all Permanent Representatives to the United Nations, New York, 24 March 2005.
az Summary of the tenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to the Convention on Biological Diversity: 7-11 February 2005, ENB, Vol. 9, No. 306, 14 February 2005, p. 3-4; Summary of the eleventh meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to the Convention on Biological Diversity: 28 November-2 December 2005, ENB, Vol. 9, No. 333, 5 December 2005, p. 7; Summary of the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: 8-15 November 2005, ENB, Vol. 17, No. 25, 18 November 2005, p. 4. 43 Report of the UN Secretary-General "We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21"' Century", UN Doc. A/54/2000, 27 March 2000. 44 see www.millenniumassessment.org/en/index.aspx. as See, for instance, SALZMAN, THOMPSON and DAJLY, "Protecting Ecosystem Services", Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 2001, p. 309 ff.; RUHL and GREGG, "Integrating Ecosystem
Services into Environmental Law: A Case Study of Wetlands Mitigation Banking", ibid., p. 365 ff.; BOYD, KING and Wainger, "Compensation for Lost Ecosystem Services: The Need for Benefit-Based Transfer Ratios and Restoration Criteria", ibid, p. 393 ff. "� UNEP High-Level Brainstorming Workshop on Creating Pro-Poor Markets for Ecosystem Services: 10-12 October 2005, London. "UNEP DEC, Multilateral Environmental Agreements and Pro-Poor Markets for Ecosystem Services, discussion paper for the High-Level Brainstorming Workshop on Creating Pro-Poor Markets for Ecosystem Services 10-12 October 2005, London. 48 Summary of the third session of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification, cit. supra note 17. 49 GRAIN, "No, Air, Don't Sell Ourself, April 2005, available at http://www.grain.org/seed- ling files/seed-05-04-5.pdf.
50 As highlighted in UNEP DEC, Mainstreaming the Environment beyond �G-7, concept paper for the Mainstreaming Environment beyond MDG-7 High-Level Brainstorming Workshop, 13-14 July 2005, Nairobi, Kenya. 51 "Revised draft outcome document of the high-level plenary meeting of the General Assembly of September 2005 submitted by the President of the General Assembly", UN Doc. A/59/HLPM/CRP.1, 8 June 2005 (hereinafter, June draft). sz "Revised draft outcome document of the high-level plenary meeting of the General Assembly of September 2005 submitted by the President of the General Assembly", UN Doc. A/59/HLPM/CRP. I/Rev. 1, 22 July 2005 (hereinafter, July draft). 53 "Revised draft outcome document of the high-level plenary meeting of the General Assembly of September 2005 submitted by the President of the General Assembly", UN Doc. A/59/HLPM/CRP.1/Rev.2, 5 August 2005 (hereinafter, August draft). 54 outcome Document, para. 4. The same language was agreed upon at WSSD in the JPOI, para. 125.
sb Particularly in the section on "science and technology for development" of the Outcome Document (para 60). 57 Outcome Document, paras. 11, 24(b) and 39. s$ Ibidem, para. 19. 59 Ibidem, para. 22. 60 Ibidem, para. 24. 61 Ibidem, para. 26(b) and (c). bz Ibidem, para. 38. 6' Ibidem, paras. 97 and 98. 64 Ibidem, para. 169, part 1. bs Ibidem, paras. 48-56, p. 12-15. 66 june draft, para. 18.
6' GARCIA-DELGADO, "The Big Letdown: UN Summit Shortchanges the Poor", available at http://www.civicus.org/new/content/monthcolintrol6.htm. 68 IUCN press release "Make the Environment the Future to Make Poverty History: Director General Urges UN General Assembly to Invest in Ecosystems", 16 September 2005, New York. 69 EU Presidency Statement at the UN 2005 World Summit, 14 September 2005, New York, para 16. 70 See, for instance, WWF press release "World Summit agreement addresses some key environmental issues", 17 September 2005, New York. " According to Gordon Shepherd, WWF Director of International Policy, "with the World Summit concentrating on issues of international concern such as disarmament, terrorism, and UN management reform, there was a real danger that sustainable development and the environment would be traded away in the last small hour negotiations [...]. That environmental sustainability is being recognized by Heads of State as an equal priority on the international agenda is signifi- cant", ibidem.
'z Dupuy (P.-M.), intervention during the "UN Reform Symposium: The EU, the US and the Reform of the United Nations Charter: Challenges and Perspectives", EUI, Florence, 21- 22 October 2005. See also, Dupuy, "Formation of Customary International Law and General Principles", in BODANSKY, BRUNNEE and HEY (eds.), Handbook on International Environmental Law, Oxford, forthcoming. " Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v United States ofAmerica), Merits, 27 June 1986, para. 184. '° Outcome Document, para. 48. 'S Ibidem. 76 Greenpeace press release "UN World Summit: Empty Words on Climate Change", 16 September 2005, New York.
" Outcome Document, para. 51. 78 Ibidem, para. 53. '9Ibidem, para. S 1. 80 Ibidem, para. 55. 8' Ibidem, para. 60(d). 8z Ibidem, para. 65(i). 83 Greenpeace press release, cit. supra note 76. 84 Summary of the eleventh Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the first Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol: 28 November-10 December 2005, ENB, Vol. 12, No. 291, 12 December 2005. 85 Outcome Document, para. 56(c).
86 August draft, p. 10. 87 Outcome Document, para. 56(b), emphasis added. 88 UNCCD, Art. 4.1 (c). g9 Summary of the seventh session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification: 17-28 October 2005, ENB, Vol. 4, No. 186, 31 October 2005, p. 16. 90 Outcome Document, para. 49. 91 JPOI, para. 14. 9z Outcome Document, para. 56(h). 93 Millennium Declaration, para. 19; and JPOI, paras. 25-26. 94 June draft, p. 18. 's Outcome Document, para. 65(k). 96 As per JPOI, para. 23.
9' Outcome Document, para. 56(i). 98 Ibidem. 99 Summary of the fifth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests: 16-27 May 2005, ENB, Vol. 13, No. 133, 30 May 2005. 101 Outcome Document, para. 65(1). 101 As suggested by UNEP/GC:23/L.3/Rev.l, section 1, second bullet point. 102 Outcome Document, para. 56(o). 103 Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, UN Doc. A/CONF.207/11, Annex II,14 January 2005, para. 25.
104 On the broader issue of transport of radioactive material and SIDS, see CURRIE and VAN DYKE, "Recent Developments in the International Law Governing Shipments of Nuclear Materials and Wastes and Their Implications for SIDS", RECIEL, 2005, p. 117 ff. 105 Outcome Document, para. 60(a). ios Ibidem, para. 60(b). 107 Ibidem, para. 60(d). '°g Ibidem, para. 60(f). 109 The international environmental governance process was initiated in decisions 21/20 and 21/21 of the 2lst session of the UNEP Governing Council, which provided for the further strengthening of UNEP, and established an Open-Ended Intergovernmental Group of Ministers or Their Representatives to undertake a comprehensive policy-oriented assessment of exist- ing institutional weaknesses as well as future needs and options for strengthened international environmental governance (IEG), including the financing of UNEP. See Summary of the sev- enth special session of the LJNEP Governing Council, Third Global Ministerial Environmental Forum and Final Open-Ended Intergovernrnental Group of Ministers or their Representatives on International Environmental Governance: 12-15 February 2002, ENB, Vol. 16, No. 24, 18 February 2002.
"° Joint appeal of the Environment Ministers of Germany, France and Spain, "The Time Has Come: We Need a Strong UN Environment Organisation", BMU-Pressedienst No. 134/05, Berlin 26 May 2005; and Frankfurter Rundschau, 27 May 2005. See also MARTIMORT-Asso and TiIBIANA, "International Environmental Govemance: The Next Steps", Les syntheses de 1'Iddri, No. 7, January 2005. 111 PALMER, "New Ways to Make International Environmental Law", AJIL, 1992, p. 259 ff.; AYLING, "Serving Many Voices: Progressing Calls for an International Environmental Organisation", Journal of Environmental Law, 1997, p. 243 ff.; RUNGE, "A Global Environment Organization (GEO) and the World Trading System", JWT, 2001, p. 399 ff.; DESAI, "Mapping the Future of International Environmental Governance", YIEL, 2002, p. 43 ff.; BRACK and HYVARINEN (eds.), Global Environmental Institutions. Perspectives on Reform, London, 2002; UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY (UNU), International Environmental Governance. The Question of Reform: Key Issues and Proposals. Preliminary Findings, UNU Report, March 2002. "2 All these aspects have been addressed in the 2004 report "Options and Modalities for the Improvement of International Environmental Governance through the Establishment of a UN Environmental Organization", requested by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs from Professors Pierre-Marie Dupuy and Francesco Francioni of the EUI, to which the present au- thor had the privilege of contributing together with a team of researchers including Federico Lenzerini, Massimiliano Montini, Riccardo Pavoni and Francesca De Vittor. The report is avail- able online at http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdfJEtudes_iddri �uridique - EN.pdf 113 http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/frmonde/onue-en/index.html. 114 European Community Statement at the UN 2005 World Summit, 16 September 2005, New York; Press release "European Community Statement by Dr. Benita Ferrero-Waldner, European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, at the UN 2005 World Summit", 14-16 September 2005), New York, SP05-106EN.
"5 "EU Commissioner Ferrero-Walder's notes from UN press conference on the eve of the UN World Summit 2005", 13 September 2005, New York, SP05-411EN; "UN World Summit 2005: Commission President Barroso challenges others to match EU's commitments on develop- ment goals". "6 Presidency Conclusions, Brussels European Council, 16-17 June 2005, available online at http://europa.eu.int/comm/externalJelations/un/docs/050616 - european - council- en.pdf. "' The other agency is UN-HABITtIT. "8 Outcome Document, para. 155(a). 119 Ibidem, para. 169. See also mention of "proposals [...] for more tightly managed entities in the field of environment", para. 169, part 3. zoo June draft, para 99.
121 Council's Conclusions on UN World Summit, 2687th External Relations Council meeting, Brussels, 7 November 2005, CL05-276EN. 122 EU Presidency Statement, cit. supra note 69. 'z' Outcome Document, para. 22(a). 124 Joeffiy Sachs in Chris Tomlinson, "Africa: 2006 Must Be Year ofAction", Mail&Guardian Online (South Africa), 10 January 2006. 125 UN Millennium Project Report "Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals", UNDP, New York, 2005. 126 Ibidem, para 19. 127 Ibidem, para. 20.
133 UNDP, cit. supra note 15. "' UNEP High-Level Workshop on Mainstreaming Environment beyond MDG-7, 13-14 July 2005, Nairobi, and UNEP High-Level Brainstorming Workshop on Creating Pro-Poor Markets for Ecosystem Services: 10-12 October 2005, London. For a summary of these events, see respectively www.iisd.ca/sd/sdhlb/ and www.iisd.ca/ymb/unep-lse/ 135 UNEP DEC, Multilateral Environmental Agreements and Pro-Poor Markets for Ecosystem Services, cit. supra note 47. "6 UNEP DEC, Divided, yet United, cit. supra note 19. "I As hoped by the EU. See "EU Commissioner Ferrero-Walder's notes from UN press conference on the eve of the UN World Summit 2005", cit. supra note 115. 138 These are some of the indicators for MDG-7.
139 Council conclusions on UN World Summit, cit. supra note 121. 140 UN Secretary-General's Keynote Speech at the Conference on Reforming the United Nations, Columbia University, New York, 17 October 2005. 141 UNEP DEC, Multilateral Environmental Agreements and Pro-Poor Markets forEcosystem Services, cit. supra note 47. iaz BOJO and CHANDRA REDDY, cit. supra note 11.
143 UNEP DEC, Divided, yet United, cit. supra note 19. 144 Ibidem. 145 For a more detailed discussion on the role of the EU in the Summit process, see MORGEItA and MARIN DURAN, "The UN 2005 World Summit, the Environment and the EU: Priorities, Promises and Prospects", RECIEL, 2006, p. 11 ff. 146 Council Conclusions on UN World Summit, cit. supra note 121. 147 EU Presidency Statement, cit. supra note 69. '°8 See the inconsistency in referring to international environmental conventions across different Association Agreements highlighted by MaRiN DURAN and MoRGEitA, "Towards Environmental Integration in EC External Relations? A Comparative Analysis of Selected Association Agreements", YEEL, 2006, p. 179 ff. 'a9 Together with the Commission. sops highlighted in the EU Presidency Statement at the discussions of the General Assembly on the follow-up and the implementation of the Outcome Document, 4 October 2005, New York, PRES05-238EN.
151 EU Presidency Statement, cit. supra note 69, para. 14. �sz EU Presidency Statement, 4 October 2005, cit. supra note 150. 153 Ibidem. 154 WWF press release, cit. supra note 3. It should be recalled that in June 2005 a two-day civil society dialogue was held at the General Assembly to discuss the proposed UN reforms. See: General Assembly begins two-day dialogue with civil society, with focus on UN reform proposals, 2005 World Summit, UN Press Release GA/10359, 23 June 2005; "Together We Can Make Poverty History", UN Secretary-General tells closing session of General Assembly hear- ings with civil society, UN Press Release GA/10361, 24 June 2005.