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in The Italian Yearbook of International Law Online


  • 1 See PARDO, Statement on the questions of the Reservation exclusively for peaceful purposes of the Sea-bed and the Ocean Floor, in UN General Assembly Documents, Provi- sional A/ I/PV'515 and Provisional A/ I/PVI5i6 of i November 1967 (following imme- diately the Verbal Note dated 17 August from the Permanent Mission of Malta to the UN addressed to the Secretary General: UN Doc. A/G695); IDEM, "Some general considerations on the need for and the requirements of an international regime for the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor", in Symposium on the (International Regirne of the Sea-Bed, Roma, Accademia Na- zionale dei Lincei, 1970, p. 368-9.

  • 2 On the data of the reports proving the affirmation of such a generalized opinio juris.

  • see NlErrcozzi, "Esecutivo ed autorita giudiziaria nella determinazione dei poteri dello Stato sulla piattaforma continentale", 55 RDI (1972), p. 644 off. 3 See MENGOZZI, op. cit., p. 649 ff. 4 We are particularly referring to the proposal made by Nepal on 6 February 1978 (UN Doc. 78 75481), then resumed, again by Nepal delegate, in the sixth negotiation group, also on behalf of Afghanistan, Austria, Bolivia, Lesotho, Nepal, Singapore, Uganda, Upper Volta and Zambia (proposal resulting in the creation of an ad hoc group (Group for the Common Heritage Fund), to establish a special Fund, i.e. the "Common Heritage Fund", to be financed with contributions coming from the exploitation of all non-living resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone and designed to the profit of the whole International Community. On Nepal initiative and on its inspiring idea just refer to LoGUE, "The Nepal Proposal for a Common Heritage Fund", California Western International Law Journal (1979), p. 598 ff .

  • 5 For such a remark see, among others, TxEVES, "L'inquinamento marino: profili di diritto internazionale e comunitario", i Studi marittimi (1978), No. i, p. 33.

  • 6 For the attribution to such qualification of a similar ''attenuating" function see TREVES, op. cit., loco cit. 7 See ICJReports, 1974, p. 3 and ff. On this point see MENGOZZI, "The International Court of Justice, the United Nations Conference and the Law of the Sea", 3 Yearbook (1977), p. 95. 8 For a definitely positive answer to such a question see, for instance, CoNFOR'rr, "La corsa degli Stati costieri all'accaparramento delle risorse marine", i Studi marittimi (1978), No. 2, P. 49.

  • 9 For a similar remark see FLORIO, Spazi marini e principi di diritto internazionale, Milano, 1977, p. 252.

  • 10 For such an assertion in general expressed with reference to all the developments oc- curred in the field of environment protection see Kiss, "Recents traites regionaux concernant la pollution de la mer", 22 AFDI (1976), p. 733 ff.

  • 11 To point out such element see VUKAS, La CEE e la prevention de la pollution de la Mediterranee: quelle coop6ration?, Nice, 16-18 October ig8o; IDEM, "Il nuovo diritto interna-

  • zionale del mare, la gestione e la salvaguardia delle risorse ittiche del Mediterraneo", in Atti del X° Convegno Internazionale sui problemi della pesca, Cesenatico, June 1981, p. 32 ff. 12 See JOHNSON, "The Baltic Convention", 25 ICLQ (1976), p. i ff.; BoczEK, "The Baltic Sea", in Proceedings of the Symposium on Marine Regionalism, Rhode Island, 25-26 October 1979, P. 41 ff - 13 See Kiss, op. cit. 14 For the text of the said Plan see UNEP/WG 2/5 Annex. On the adoption of the

  • said Programme and its following see FRESIA A., Les particularismes juridiques de la Medi- terranee (These), Nice, 1977; JuDA, "The Regional Effort to Control Pollution in the Me- diterranean Sea", Ocean Management (1979) p. 121 ff.; F.�BY, "The United Nations Envi- ronmental Program and Regionalism", in Proceedings of the Symposium on Marine Regio- nalism, cit.; SALIBA, "Protecting the Mediterranean, Coordinating Regional Action", 2 Marine Policy (1978), p. 171 ff.; BENCHICK M., "La Met Mediterranee, mer semi-fermee", 84 RGDIP (1980) p. 2843.; BLISS, "Review of the Mediterranean Action Plan", Ocean Management, (1978), p. 315 ff.; AMBIO 1977 (with notes on this subject by HELMER, KECKES, OSTERBERG, THACHER and SCIOLLA H. LAGRANGE); Kiss, "La Convenzione per la salvaguardia del Mare Mediterraneo dall'inquinamento", L'amb:ente e il diritto (1978), p. 201 ff.; SISTO, "La Con- venzione di Barcellona del 1976 sulla protezicne del Mediterraneo contro l'inquinamento" 63 RDI (1980), p. 355 ff�� YTURRAGA B., "Convenio de Barcellona para la protection del Mar Mediterraneo contra la contaminacion'', 3 Revista de Institucionas Europeas (1976), p. 71 ff.; de GUTTRY A., "La tutela del Mar Mediterraneo in un recente accordo: il Proof collo di Atene del 17 maggio 1980", 17 RDIPP (1981). 15 See UNEP, Intergovernmental Meeting on Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas, Athens I3-I7 Oct. 1980, Guidelines proposed for a Protocol concerning Mediterranean Marine and Coastal Protected Areas, UNEP/IG 20/4. 16 Report of the IJO/UNEP Meeting on the Legal Aspects of Pollution Resulting from the Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the Sea-Bed and its Subsoil in the Mediterranean, Roma, 15 Dec. 1978. 17 See DI CORRADO, Proposta per un accordo internazionale sull'equo sfruttamento delle

  • risorse ittiche nel Mediterraneo", Palermo, June 1980, as well as Mnrros, "Il contributo del Programma delle Nazioni Unite per 1'Ambiente, UNEP, alia salvaguardia e alia gestione delle risorse del Mediterraneo", in It nuovo diritto internazionale. del mare, la CEE, la salva- guardia e la gestione delle risorse ittiche del Mediterraneo, Atti del X' Convegno Interna- zionale sui problem della pesca, cit., p. 108 ss. and MENGOZZI, "La cooperazione italo-spagnola in materia di pesca nel quadro delle comuni prospettive comunitarie e mediterranee", in Atti del IXO Convegno sui problemi della pesca, Cesenatico, June 1980. 18 MANOS, op. cit.

  • 19 As for the Conference of the Association of Italian and Yugoslav Adriatic Towns see for instance the interesting acts of the IV Conference held in Ancona on 22-23 Oct. 1978. 20 See, for instance, the interesting report of the said organization mentioned under note 9. 21 In GU No. 211 of 2 August 1980. 22 On this point see MENGOZZI, "Adriatico, cooperazione internazionale nel Mediterraneo, politica comunitaria della pesca", in Atti dell'VIII Convegno sui problemi della pesca, Cese- natico, June 1979; IDEM in CNEL, "Contributo della pesca alia soluzione del problema alimentare", in Atti della Conferenza nazionale della pesca, Roma, 20-21 March 1980, p. 257. As evidence of the attention paid by the EEC Commission to the cooperation in the Medi- terranean, See Commission of the Eur. Community, Ispra Establishment, Information Notice on the Direct Action: ""Protection of the Sea", to be executed by J.R.C. in the 1980 - 83 Period. Archimedes Project surveillance of the Mediterranean Sea, Ispra 30-5.ig8o (13/82/80 P'B/Mmr).

  • 25 George P., "Perorazione per una forma di azione unitaria nel Mediterraneo", i Studi marittimi (1978), No. z, p. 6 if. 24 See GEORGE, op. at., lot. :it.

  • 25 UNEP/iG zz/7, 31 March 1981. 26 See The Siren, news from UNEP's Regional Seas Programme, No. 14, fall 1981, p. i ff. 27 See The Siren, news from UNEP's Regional Seas Programme, No. 12, spring 1981, p. i ff. 28 See ICJReports, 1969, para. 73.

  • 29 From this point of view, when the cooperation duty prescribed by Art. 123 is quali- fied as having a soft character, it acquires a meaning which makes it compulsory without running a risk of contradiction. Instead this contradiction exists in those authors who think on one hand that the duty of the coastal State to protect the environment is less strong because it is generic and on the other maintain that the violation of this duty to the detriment of third States gives rise to true international illegal acts deriving from "violation of sove- reignty" (see TREVES, op. cit., p. 33). 30 See, for instance, Kiss, "Recents traites", cit., p. 734 (with reference to the Medi- terranean Sea) and COQUIA, "Regional Cooperation in the Protection Development and the Utilization in the Pacific Ocean", 19 IndianJIL (1979), p. 65.

  • 31 On the subject see ZENNY and FAO Dpt of Fisheries, Establishment Structure, Functions and .4ctivities of International Fisheries Bodies, Roma, 1978. � On this Convention, which came into force on 28 July 1974, see Johnson, op. cit., p. 3 and ff.

  • � See LOFTAS, "FAO's EEZ Programme. Assisting a new era in fisheries", 5 Marine policy (1981), p. 229 ff. � On this point see COPES, "The impact of UNCLOS III on Management of the World's Fisheries", 5 Marine Policy (1981), p. 220 fl.

  • 35 On this point see MENGOZZI, "International Court of Justice", cit.

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