The excavations of the joint mission of the University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’ and the Department of Archaeology at Boston University (USA) on the hill of Bieta Giyorgis at Aksum, Ethiopia, recovered numerous animal bones from various contexts dating from Pre-Aksumite to Late Aksumite levels, around 700 BC to AD 1200. The fauna is dominated by domestic mammals. Among them, cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus) are dominant. Age structure and butchering marks indicate an intense exploitation of these animals. Domestic caprines (sheep and goats) are also present. Their exploitation is focused on young individuals. Donkey, dog and domestic fowl were found in small numbers. Wild mammals are very rare. Long-distance contacts are illustrated by remains of marine fish and worked cowries from the Red Sea.