How Important was the Presence of Elephants as a Determinant of the Zhizo Settlement of the Greater Mapungubwe Landscape?

In: Journal of African Archaeology
View More View Less
  • 1 Anthropology and Archaeology Department, University of Pretoria
  • 2 School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal
  • 3 School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal
  • 4 South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria

The initial settlement of the Greater Mapungubwe Landscape by Zhizo ceramic-producing farmers around AD 900 is said to be linked to the large elephant population that the region once supported. Elephant ivory was used in the Indian Ocean trade network to obtain exotic trade goods such as glass beads and cloth. However, there has been no attempt to determine whether the local elephant population was large enough to support such trade endeavours. In this paper, we use an inter-disciplinary approach to establish a projection of the past elephant population and demonstrate that the ivory tonnage in the region, including that which could be recovered from natural carcasses, could have supported trade demand. We also argue that at the time of settlement the same environmental productivity supporting the elephant population provided an ecological system amenable to cultivation and could support domesticated livestock. In addition, the local topography, river networks and community of large mammalian herbivores contributed to the attractiveness of the region from a settlement perspective. We believe that the elephant population was only one component present on the landscape that attracted agriculturalists to settle in the area.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 125 80 2
Full Text Views 27 7 0
PDF Downloads 18 10 0