Middle Holocene Fisher-Hunter-Gatherers of Lake Turkana in Kenya and Their Cultural Connections with the North: The Pottery

in Journal of African Archaeology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

During the Early and Middle Holocene, large areas of today’s arid regions in North and East Africa were populated by fisher-hunter-gatherer communities who heavily relied on aquatic resources. In North Africa, Wavy Line pottery and harpoons are their most salient diagnostic features. Similar finds have also been made at sites in Kenya’s Lake Turkana region in East Africa but a clear classification of the pottery was previously not available. In order to elucidate the cultural connections between Lake Turkana’s first potters and North African groups, the pottery of the Koobi Fora region that was excavated by John Barthelme in the 1970/80s was re-assessed in detail. It was compared and contrasted – on a regional scale – with pottery from Lowasera and sites near Lothagam (Zu4, Zu6) and – on a supra-regional scale – with the pottery of the Central Nile Valley and eastern Sahara. The analyses reveal some significant points: Firstly, the early fisher pottery of Lake Turkana is clearly typologically affiliated with the Early Khartoum pottery and was thus part of the Wavy Line complex. Secondly, certain typological features of the Turkana assemblages, which include only a few Dotted Wavy Line patterns, tentatively hint to a date at least in the 7th millennium bp or earlier. Thirdly, the pottery features suggest that the East African fisher-hunter-gatherers adopted pottery from Northeast Africa.

Middle Holocene Fisher-Hunter-Gatherers of Lake Turkana in Kenya and Their Cultural Connections with the North: The Pottery

in Journal of African Archaeology

Sections

References

  • AngelJ.L. 1980. Problems for discussion. Microevolution. In: AngelJ.L.PheniceT.W.RobbinsL.H. & LynchB.M. (eds.) Late Stone Age Fishermen of Lothagam. The Museum, Michigan State UniversityAnthropological Series 3 (2) pp. 186-188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AppanduraiA. 1986. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. In: AppanduraiA. (ed.) The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge University PressCambridge pp. 3-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ArkellA.J. 1949. Early Khartoum. Oxford University PressOxford.

  • ArkellA.J. 1953. Shaheinab. Oxford University PressOxford.

  • ArnoldD.E. 1985. Ceramic theory and cultural process. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • BailloudG. 1969. L’évolution des styles céramiques en Ennedi (République du Tchad). In: Mémoires I Actes du Premier Colloque International d’Archéologie Africaine Fort Lamy (Rép. du Tchad) 1966. Institut national tchadien pour les Sciences HumainesFort Lamy pp. 31-45.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnettW.K. & Hoopes J.W. (eds.) 1995. The emergence of Pottery. Technology and Innovation in Ancient Societies. Smithsonian Institution PressWashington, London.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarthelmeJ. 1985. Fisher-hunters and Neolithic pastoralists in East Turkana Kenya. B.A.R. International Series 254. Oxford.

  • BeckerE. 2011. The Prehistoric Inhabitants of the Wadi Howar. An Anthropological Study of Human Skeletal Remains from the Sudanese Part of the Eastern Sahara. Ph.D. Thesis Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Mainz. http://ubm.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2011/2927

    • Export Citation
  • BeyinA. 2011. Recent archaeological survey and excavation around the greater Kalokol area, west side of Lake Turkana: Preliminary findings. Nyame Akuma 7540-50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BinfordL.R. 2001. Constructing frames of reference. An analytical method for archaeological theory building using ethnographic and environmental data sets. University of California PressBerkeley, Los Angeles, London.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BlosziesC.FormanS.L. & WrightD.K. 2015. Water level history for Lake Turkana, Kenya in the past 15,000 years and a variable transition from the African Humid Period to Holocene activity. Global and Planetary Change 13264-76.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BowserB.J. & PattonJ.Q. 2008. Learning and transmission of pottery style. Women’s life histories and communities of practice in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In: StarkM.T.BowserB.J. & HorneL. (eds.) Cultural Transmission and Material Culture. Breaking down Boundaries. University of Arizona PressTucson pp. 105-129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrooksA.S. & SmithC.C. 1987. Ishango revisited: new age determination and cultural interpretations. African Archaeological Review 565-78.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrownJ.A. 1989. Beginnings of pottery as economic process. In: Van der LeeuwS.E. & TorrenceR. (eds.) What’s New? A Closer Look at the Process of Innovation. One World Archaeology 14. Unwin HymanLondon pp. 203-224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ButzerK.W.IsaacG.L.RichardsonL.I. & Washbourn-KamauC. 1972. Radiocarbon dating of east African lake levels. Science 1751069-1076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanevaI. 1983a. “Wavy Line” pottery from Saggai 1: an essay of classification. In: CanevaI. (ed.) Pottery using Gatherers and Hunters at Saggai (Sudan): Preconditions for Food Production. Origini 12Roma pp. 155-190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanevaI. 1983b. Saggai: The combined evidence. In: CanevaI. (ed.) Pottery using Gatherers and Hunters at Saggai (Sudan): Preconditions for Food Production. Origini 12Roma pp. 259-271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanevaI. 1988. The cultural equipment of the Early Neolithic occupants of Geili. In: CanevaI. (ed.) El Geili: the History of a Middle Nile Environment 7000 B.C.-A.D. 1500. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 29. British Archaeological Reports International Series 424Oxford pp. 65-114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanevaI. 1993. Pre-pastoral Middle Nile: local developments and Saharan contacts. In: KryzaniakL.KobusiewiczM. & AlexanderJ. (eds.) Environmental Change and Human Culture in the Nile Basin and Northern Africa until the Second Millennium B.C. Studies in African Archaeology 4. Poznan Archaeological MuseumPoznan pp. 405-411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanevaI. (ed). 1983. Pottery using Gatherers and Hunters at Saggai (Sudan): Preconditions for Food Production. Origini 12Roma.

  • CanevaI. & MarksA. 1990. More on the Shaqadud pottery: evidence for Saharo-Nilotic connections during the 6th-4th millennium B.C. Archéologie du Nil moyen 411-35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChapmanS. 1967. Kansyore island. Azania 2165-191.

  • ChlodnickiM. 1984. Pottery from the Neolithic settlement at Kadero (Central Sudan). In: KryzaniakL. & KobusiewiczM. (eds.) Origin and Early Development of Food-producing Cultures in North-Eastern Africa. Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan Archaeological MuseumPoznan pp. 337-342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChlodnickiM. 2011. Pottery. In: ChlodnickiM.KobusiewiczM. & KroeperK. (eds.) Kadero. Poznan Archaeological MuseumPoznan pp. 215-266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CloseA.E. 1995. Few and far between. Early ceramics in North Africa. In: BarnettW.K. & HoopesJ.W. (eds.) The Emergence of Pottery. Technology and Innovation in Ancient Societies. Smithsonian Institution PressWashington, London pp. 23-37.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CollettD.P. & RobertshawP.T. 1980. Early Iron Age and Kansyore pottery finds from Gogo Falls, South Nyanza. Azania 15133-145.

  • CribbR.L.D. 1991. Nomads in archaeology. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • DaleD. 2007. An archaeological investigation of the Kansyore, Later Stone Age hunter-gatherers in East Africa. Ph.D. Thesis Washington University Saint Louis Missouri.

    • Export Citation
  • DaleD. & AshleyC.Z. 2010. Holocene hunter-fisher-gatherer communities: new perspectives on Kansyore using communities of Western Kenya. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 45 (1) 24-28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • deMenocalP.OrtizJ.GuildersonT.AdkinsJ.SarntheinM.BakerL. & YarusinskyM. 2000. Abrupt onset and termination of the African humid period: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 19347-361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DittrichA. 2011. Zur Neolithisierung des Mittleren Niltals und angrenzender Regionen: Kultureller Wandel vom Mesolithikum zum Neolithikum im Nord- und Zentralsudan. BAR International Series 2281Oxford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrakeN.A.BlenchR.M.ArmitageS.J.BristowC.S. & WhiteK.H. 2011. Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert. PNAS 108 (2) 458-462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EerkensJ.W. & Lipo C.P. 2008. Cultural transmission of copying errors and the evolution of variation in woodland pots. In: StarkM.T.BowserB.J. & HorneL. (eds.) Cultural Transmission and Material Culture. Breaking down Boundaries. University of Arizona PressTucson pp. 63-81.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FernandezV.M.JimenoA.MenéndezM. & LarioJ. 2003. Archaeological survey in the Blue Nile area, Central Sudan. Complutum 14201-272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FullerD.Q. 2005. Ceramics, seeds and culinary change in prehistoric India. Antiquity 79 (306) 761-777.

  • GarceaE. 1993a. Cultural dynamics in the Saharo-Sudanese Prehistory. Gruppo Editoriale InternazionaleRom.

  • GarceaE. 1993Early Khartoumb. “Mesolithic” settlements in the Geili-Kabbashi area, Sudan. Journal of Field Archaeology 20519-522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarceaE. 1996. Cultural developments in the final hunting-gathering horizons in the Middle and Upper Nile Valley. In: KryzaniakL.Kroeper K. & Kobusiewicz M. (eds.) Interregional Contacts in the Later Prehistory of Northeastern Africa. Studies in African Archaeology 5. Poznan Archaeological MuseumPoznan pp. 321-329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarceaE. 1998. From Early Khartoum to the Sahara Neolithic: Ceramics in comparison. In: Actes de la VIIIe Conférence Internationale d’ Études Nubiennes Lille 1994. Cahier de Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et d’Egyptologie de Lille 173. Lille pp. 91-104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarceaE.A.A. & HildebrandE.A. 2009. Shifting social networks along the Nile: Middle Holocene ceramic assemblages from Sai Island, Sudan. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28304-322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarcinY.MelnickD.StreckerM.R.OlagoD. & Tiercelin J.J. 2012. East African mid-Holocene wet-dry transition recorded in paleo-shorelines of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya Rift. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 331-332322-334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GosselainO.P. 2008. Mother Bella was not a Bella. Inherited and transformed traditions in southwestern Niger. In: StarkM.T.BowserB.J. & HorneL. (eds.) Cultural Transmission and Material Culture. Breaking down Boundaries. University of Arizona PressTucson pp. 150-177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaalandR. 1992. Fish, pots and grain: Early and Mid-Holocene adaptations in the Central Sudan. The African Archaeological Review 1043-64.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaalandR. 1993. Aqualithic sites of the Middle Nile. Azania 2847-86.

  • HaalandR. 1995a. Pottery materials: a discussion of the emergence and consequences of pottery production. In: HaalandR. & Magid A.A.(eds.) Aqualithic Sites along the Rivers Nile and Atbara Sudan. Alma MaterBergen, Sudan pp. 84-122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaalandR. 1995b. Bone artefacts: production technique and function. In: HaalandR. & Magid A.A. (eds.) Aqualithic Sites along the Rivers Nile and Atbara Sudan. Alma MaterBergen, Sudan pp. 123-136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaalandR. & Magid A.A. 1995. Introduction. In: HaalandR. & Magid A.A. (eds.) Aqualithic Sites along the Rivers Nile and Atbara Sudan. Alma MaterBergen, Sudan pp. 9-16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaalandR. & Magid A.A. (eds.) 1995. Aqualithic Sites along the Rivers Nile and Atbara Sudan. Alma MaterBergen, Sudan.

  • HaydenB. 1995. The emergence of prestige technologies and pottery. In: BarnettW.K. & Hoopes J.W. (eds.) The Emergence of Pottery. Technology and Innovation in Ancient Societies. Smithsonian Institution PressWashington, London pp. 257-265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HerbichI. & DietlerM. 2008. The long arm of the mother-in-law. Learning, postmarital resocialization of women, and material culture style. In: StarkM.T.BowserB.J. & HorneL. (eds.) Cultural Transmission and Material Culture. Breaking down Boundaries. University of Arizona PressTucson pp. 223-244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HildebrandE.A. & GrilloK.M. 2012. Early herders and monumental sites in eastern Africa: dating and interpretation. Antiquity 86338-352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HodderI. 1982. Symbols in Action: Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Material Culture. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • HodderI. 1991. Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • HollA.F.C. 2005. Holocene „Aquatic“adaptations in North Tropical Africa. In: Brower StahlA. (ed.) African Archaeology. A Critical Introduction. Blackwell PublishingMalden, Oxford, Victoria pp. 174-186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HuysecomE.RasseM.LespezL.NeumannK.FahmyA.BalloucheA.OzainneS.MagettiM.TriboloCh. & SorianoS.. 2009. The emergence of pottery in Africa during the tenth millennium cal bc: new evidence from Ounjougou (Mali). Antiquity 83905-917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IrishJ.D. & TurnerC.G. 1990. West African dental affinity of Late Pleistocene Nubians. Peopling of the Eurafrican-South Asian triangle ii. Homo 4142-53.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JesseF. 2003a. Rahib 80/87. Ein Wavy-Line-Fundplatz im Wadi Howar und die früheste Keramik in Nordafrika. Africa Praehistorica 16. Heinrich-Barth-InstitutKöln.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JesseF. 2003b. Early ceramics in the Sahara and the Nile Valley. In: KryzaniakL.KroeperK. & KobusiewiczM. (eds.) Cultural Markers in the Later Prehistory of Northeastern Africa and Recent Research. Studies in African Archaeology 8. Poznan Archaeological MuseumPoznan pp. 35-50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JesseF. 2010. Early pottery in Northern Africa – an overview. Journal of African Archaeology 8 (2) 219-238.

  • KedingB. 2006. Were the hunter-gatherers in the Eastern Sahara of the “delayed return” type? An archaeological perspective from the Wadi Howar region/Sudan. In: CanevaI. & Roccati A. (eds.) Acta Nubica. Proceedings of the X International Conference of Nubian Studies Rome 9-14 September 2002. Università di Roma “La Sapienza”Rom pp. 81-94.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KedingB. 2009. Leben und Überleben in der Wüste – Kulturwandel bei prähistorischen Gesellschaften im Spannungsfeld von Umweltänderung und Tradition. Unpublished Habilitation Thesis Universität zu Köln.

    • Export Citation
  • KentS. 1991. The relationship between mobility strategies and site structure. In: KrollE.M. & PriceT.D. (eds.) The Interpretation of Archaeological Patterning. Plenum PressNew York pp. 33-59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KuperR. & Kröpelin S. 2006. Climate-controlled Holocene occupation in the Sahara: motor of Africa’s evolution. Science 313 (5788) 803-807.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaneP. J. 2015. Ethnicity, archaeological ceramics and changing paradigms in East African archaeology. In: MacDonaldK.C. & Richard F. (eds.) Ethnic Ambiguities in African Archaeology: Materiality History and the Shaping of Cultural Identities. Left Coast PressWalnut Creek, California pp. 245-271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaneP.AshleyC. & Oteyo G. 2006. New dates for Kansyore and Urewe wares from northern Nyanza, Kenya. Azania XLI149-164.

  • LaneP.AshleyC.SeitsonenO.HarveyP.Mire S. & OdedeF. 2007. The transition to farming in eastern Africa: new faunal and dating evidence from Wadh Lang’o and Usenge, Kenya. Antiquity 8162-81.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeakeyL.S.B. 1931. The Stone Age cultures of Kenya colony. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • LemonnierP. 1976. La description des chaines opératoires: contribution à l’étude des systèmes techniques. Technique et Culture 1100-151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MagidA.A. 1995. The lithic material. In: HaalandR. & Magid A.A. (eds.) Aqualithic Sites along the Rivers Nile and Atbara Sudan. Alma MaterBergen, Sudan pp. 52-83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarshallF.GrilloK. & ArcoL. 2011. Prehistoric pastoralists and social responses to climatic risk in East Africa In: MillerN.F.Moore K.M. & RyanK. (eds.) Sustainable Lifeways. Cultural Persistence in an Ever-changing Environment. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and AnthropologyPhiladelphia: 39-74.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MbuaE. 1995. Holocene human remains from Lake Turkana, Northern Kenya. Unpublished Masters Thesis University of Nairobi.

    • Export Citation
  • MehlmannM.J. 1989. Later Quaternary Archaeological Sequences in Northern Tanzania. Ph.D. Thesis University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.

    • Export Citation
  • MillsB.J. 2008. Colonialism and cuisine. Cultural transmission, agency, and history at Zuni Pueblo. In: StarkM.T.BowserB.J. & HorneL. (eds.) Cultural Transmission and Material Culture. Breaking down Boundaries. University of Arizona PressTucson pp. 245-262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mohammed-AliA.S. & KhabirA.-R.M. 2003. The wavy line and dotted wavy line pottery in the prehistory of the Central Nile and the Sahara-Sahel belt. African Archaeological Review 2025-58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NashB.P.MerrickH.V. & BrownF. H. 2011. Obsidian types from Holocene sites around Lake Turkana, and other localities in northern Kenya. Journal of Archaeological Science 381371-1376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NeumannK. 1989. Holocene vegetation of the Eastern Sahara: charcoal from prehistoric sites. African Archaeological Review 797-116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NieuwenhuyseO.P.Akkermans P.M.M.G. & van der PlichtJ. 2010. Not so coarse, not always plain – the earliest pottery of Syria. Antiquity 84 (No. 323) 71-85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NordströmH.-A. 1972. Neolithic and A-Group sites (The Scandinavian Joint Expedition to Sudanese Nubia vols. 3:1 3:2). Scandinavian University BooksUppsala.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OwenR.B.BarthelmeJ.W.RenautR.W. & VincensA. 1982. Palaeolimnology and archaeology of Holocene deposits north-east of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 298523-529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oyuela-CaycedoA. 1995. Rocks versus clay: The evolution of pottery technology in the case of San Jacinto 1, Colombia. In: BarnettW.K. & HoopesJ.W. (eds.) The Emergence of Pottery. Technology and Innovation in Ancient Societies. Smithsonian Institution PressWashington, London pp. 133-144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PearsonR. 2005. The social context of early pottery in the Lingnan region of south China. Antiquity 79 (306) 819-828.

  • Petit-MaireN. & DutourO. 1987. Holocene populations of the western and southern Sahara. Mechtoids and palaeoclimates. In: CloseA.E. (ed.) Prehistory of Arid North Africa. Essays in Honor of Fred Wendorf. Southern Methodist University PressDallas pp. 259-285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PhillipsonD.W. 1977. Lowasera. Azania 121-32.

  • PhillipsonD.W. 2005. African Archaeology. 3rd edition. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • PinhasiR. 2002. Biometric study of the affinities of NK. A quantitative analysis of mandible dimensions. In: VermeerschP.M. (ed.) Palaeolithic Quarrying Sites in Upper and Middle Egypt. Egyptian Prehistory Monographs 4. Leuven University PressLeuven pp. 283-336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PlogS. 1980. Stylistic Variation in Prehistoric Ceramics: Design Analysis in the American Southwest. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RenfrewC. & BahnP. 1996. Archaeology. Theories Methods and Practice. Thames and Hudson2nd editionLondon.

  • RiceP. 1999. On the origins of pottery. Journal of Anthropological Method and Theory 61-54.

  • RickettsR.D. & JohnsonT.C. 1996. Climate change in the Turkana basin as deduced from a 4000 year long б18O record. Earth Planetary Science Letters 1427-17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RightmireG.P. 1977. Notes on the human burials from Lowasera. In: PhillipsonD.W. 1977. Lowasera. Azania 121-32Appendix: 30-32.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RightmireG.P. 1984. Human skeletal remains from eastern Africa. In: ClarkJ.D. & BrandtS.A. (eds.) From Hunters to Farmers. The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa. University of California PressBerkeley pp. 191-199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RitchieJ.C.EylesC.H. & HaynesC.V. Jr. 1985. Sediment and pollen evidence for an early to mid-Holocene humid period in the eastern Sahara. Nature 314352-355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobbinsL.H. 1972. Archaeology in the Turkana District, Kenya. Science 176 (4033) 359-366.

  • RobbinsL.H. 1974. The Lothagam Site: A Late Stone Age Fishing Settlement in the Lake Rudolf Basin Kenya. Michigan State University Museum Anthropology Series1 (2).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobbinsL.H. 1975. Bone artefacts from the Lake Rudolf Basin, East Africa. Current Anthropology 16 (4) 632-633.

  • RobbinsL.H. 1984. Late prehistoric aquatic and pastoral adaptations west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. In: ClarkJ.D. & BrandtS.A. (eds.) From Hunters to Farmers. The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa. University of California PressBerkeley pp. 206-211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobbinsL.H. 2006. Lake Turkana Archaeology: The Holocene. Ethnohistory 53 (1) 71-93.

  • RobertshawP.T. 1991. Gogo Falls: A complex site east of Lake Victoria. Azania 2663-195.

  • RouseI. 1986. Inferring population movement from cultural remains. Yale University PressNew Haven.

  • SalvatoriS.UsiaD. & Zerboni A. 2011. Mesolithic site formation and palaeoenvironment along the White Nile (Central Sudan). African Archaeological Review 28177-211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SalvatoriS.UsaiD.AbdelrahmanM.F.Di MatteoA.IacuminP.LinseeleV. & Khaleb MagzoubM. 2014. Archaeology at el-Khiday: New insight on the prehistory and history of central Sudan. In: AndersonJ.R. & WelsbyD.A. (eds.) The Fourth Cataract and Beyond. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian studies. British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan 1. Peeters PublishersLeuven pp. 242-257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShanksM. & TilleyC. 1987. Style and Ideology. Re-constructing Archaeology. Theory and Practice. RoutledgeLondon pp. 137-171.

  • ShennanS.J. (e)d. 1989. Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity. Unwin HymanLondon.

  • StahlA.B. 1989. Plant-food processing: implications for dietary quality. In: HarrisD.R. & HillmanG.C. (eds.) Foraging and Farming. The Evolution of Plant Exploitation. One World Archaeology Series 13. Unwin HymanLondon pp. 171-194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StewartK.M. 1989. Fishing Sites of North and East Africa in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Environmental Change and Human Adaptation. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 34 BAR International Series 521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SuttonJ. 1974. The aquatic civilization of Middle Africa. Journal of African History 15527-546.

  • SuttonJ.E.G. 1977. The African aqualithic. Antiquity LI (No. 201) 25-34.

  • ThomasN. 1991. Entangled objects: exchange material culture and colonialism in the Pacific. Harvard University PressCambridge.

  • UsaiD. 2014. Recent advances in understanding the prehistory of central Sudan. In: AndersonJ.R. & WelsbyD.A. (eds.) The Fourth Cataract and Beyond. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian studies. British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan 1. Peeters PublishersLeuven pp. 31-44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WallaertH. 2008. The way of the potter’s mother. Apprenticeship strategies among Dii potters from Cameroon, West Africa. In: StarkM.T.BowserB.J. & HorneL. (eds.) Cultural Transmission and Material Culture. Breaking down Boundaries. University of Arizona PressTucson pp. 178-198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WashburnD.K. 1989. The property of symmetry and the concept of ethnic style. In: ShennanS.J. (ed.) Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity. Unwin HymanLondon pp. 157-173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsM.A.J.UsaiD.SalvatoriS.WilliamsF.M.ZerboniA.Maritan L. & Linseele V. 2015. Late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation in the lower White Nile valley, central Sudan. Quaternary Science Reviews 13072-88.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WrightD.K.FormanS.L.KiuraP.BlosziesC. & Beyin A. 2015. Lakeside View: Sociocultural responses to changing water levels of Lake Turkana, Kenya. African Archaeological Review 32335-367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YellenJ.E. 1998. Barbed bone points: tradition and continuity in Sahara and Sub-Saharan Africa. African Archaeological Review 15 (3) 173-198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Figures

  • View in gallery
  • View in gallery
    Sites with Wavy Line pottery in North and East Africa adapted from Jesse (2003: 197, fig. 40). Red circled: Sites in the Turkana Basin with possible Wavy Line pottery. (Country names in German language.)
  • View in gallery
    Locality map with the Koobi Fora region, site Lowasera and the Lothagam region.
  • View in gallery
    View of the site FxJj12 N (Koobi Fora) with a loose artefact scatter of pottery, stone- and bone artefacts, animal bones and human remains.
  • View in gallery
    Barbed bone points from Koobi Fora sites.
  • View in gallery
    Possible Wavy Line pottery a: Zu6; b-d: Zu4-6 (Lothagam region), e: GaJj2.
  • View in gallery
    Pottery with “soft zigzag” patterns. a-d, f: FxJj12 N, surface (Koobi Fora); e: Lowasera, surface.
  • View in gallery
    Pottery with dotted zigzag patterns. a, b, d: Zu4-6 (Lothagam region); c, e “soft zigzags”: FxJj12 N, surface (Koobi Fora).
  • View in gallery
    Pottery from the Turkana Basin. a: GaJj2; b-c: FxJj12 N, surface; d: GaJj12 (Koobi Fora).
  • View in gallery
    Pottery with incised bows or curved patterns. a: Lowasera, Unit 1; b, c: FxJj12 N, surface; d, e: Zu 6 (Lothagam region).
  • View in gallery
    Segments, ostrich eggshell and stone beads from GaJj1 site (Koobi Fora).
  • View in gallery
    Early Khartoum pottery from the Central Nile valley and the eastern Sahara. Dotted Wavy Line: a) Westnubian Paleolake S98/20; c) Rahib 80/87; d) Tageru 84/34 (all eastern Sahara, Photos: bos/acacia). Dotted zigzags: b) Khartoum Hospital (adapted from Arkell 1949: Pl. 85.3); e-g) El-Khiday sites (adapted from Salvatori et al. 2014, Pl. 5: e, f “Late Mesolithic”; g “Middle Mesolithic”), j) “soft zigzags”: Lower Wadi Howar S95/2 (eastern Sahara, Photo: acacia). Incised Wavy Line: h) Delebo, Zone iv, Ennedi Mountains (Bailloud 1969; Photo: Keding). Pointed bottom: i) Westnubian Paleolake S98/20 (eastern Sahara; Photo: acacia).
  • View in gallery
    Early Kanysore pottery from Siror (GpJb16), Trench 1. a: 30-35 cm below ground level; b: 35-40 cm; c: 40-45 cm; d: 45-50 cm; e, f: 50-55 cm; g-l: 55-60 cm

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 159 156 9
Full Text Views 162 162 0
PDF Downloads 11 11 0
EPUB Downloads 1 1 0