Recent research about the history of human settlement and impact on the environment has focused on part of the semi-arid, south-eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe. Two iron-smelting sites were excavated in 2004. Both sites indicated use of local magnetite resources for production beyond immediate subsistence needs. The Kwali Camp smelting site was used by some of the first farmers in the region, associated with the Gokomere tradition on the southeastern Zimbabwean plateau. The Mhangula smelting site was used in a later period and probably supplied iron to elite communities associated with the Zimbabwe State.