Is a One Welfare Approach the Key to Addressing Unintended Harms and Maximising Benefits Associated with Animal Shelters?

in Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Animal shelters, pounds and rescue organisations have evolved over time. Today they serve three purposes: to reduce animal welfare harms, to reduce harms to the community associated with free-roaming, stray or unwanted companion animals, and to reduce their associated environmental harms. This discussion explores the evolution of animal shelters, and argues that they are justified on utilitarian grounds. It explores unintended harms of shelters on animal welfare, including humane killing for the purposes of population control and shelter population management, as well as risks associated with confinement including behavioural deterioration and infectious diseases. It also explores harms to non-human animals, including moral distress and compassion fatigue. Finally, it explores potential environmental harms of shelters. The One Welfare concept, utilised in the World Animal Health Organisation (OIE) Global Animal Welfare Strategy, acknowledges the interplay between animal welfare, human well-being and environmental sustainability. It is argued that the One Welfare framework is critical in minimising harms and maximising benefits associated with animal shelters.

Is a One Welfare Approach the Key to Addressing Unintended Harms and Maximising Benefits Associated with Animal Shelters?

in Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Sections

References

  • American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (2017). Pet statistics. ASPCA. Available online: https://www.aspca.org/animal-homelessness/shelter-intake-and-surrender/pet-statistics [Accessed October 19 2017].

  • American Veterinary Medical Association (2017). Options for integrating eco-friendly features into veterinary practices. AVMA. Available online: https://www.avma.org/PracticeManagement/Facilities/Pages/Options-for-integrating-eco-friendly-features-into-veterinary-practices.aspx [Accessed October 21 2017].

  • AmiotC.BastianB. & MartensP. (2016). “People and companion animals: it takes two to tango”. BioScience66552560.

  • Asilomar Accords (2004). The Asilomar Accords. Available online: https://www.shelteranimalscount.org/docs/default-source/DataResources/2004aaccords5.pdf?sfvrsn=0 [Accessed October 20 2017].

  • Australian Veterinary Association (2017). Re-emergence of feline panleukopenia in Australian cats. Available online: http://www.ava.com.au/node/86283 [Accessed October 31 2017].

  • BatchelorC.E.M. & McKeeganD.E.F. (2012). “Survey of the frequency and perceived stressfulness of ethical dilemmas encountered in UK veterinary practice”. Veterinary Record17019U55.

  • Best Friends (2017). No Kill Timeline. Available online: https://bestfriends.org/about/our-story/no-kill-timeline [Accessed October 19 2017].

  • BozenaP.Jens JörnD. & MarcA. (2002). “The state of ISO 9000 certification: a study of Swedish organizations”. The TQM Magazine14297306.

  • BurnC.C. (2017). “Bestial boredom: a biological perspective on animal boredom and suggestions for its scientific investigation”. Animal Behaviour130141151.

  • CarterJ. & TaylorC.S. (2018). “Socio-economic factors in companion animal relinquishment on the Sunshine Coast, Australia”. Society & Animals.

  • ChuaD.RandJ. & MortonJ. (2017). “Surrendered and stray dogs in Australia— estimation of numbers entering municipal pounds, shelters and rescue groups and their outcomes”. Animals750.

  • ClarkC.C.Gruffydd-JonesT. & MurrayJ.K. (2012). “Number of cats and dogs in UK welfare organisations”. Veterinary Record170493493.

  • College of Veterinarians of British Columbia (2014). Information on sodium pentobarbital. College of Veterinarians of British Columbia. Available online: https://www.cvbc.ca/CVBC2/General-Topics/Poison/Secondary_Poisoning_from_Euthanasia_Drug.aspx [Accessed October 25 2017].

  • ColoniusT.J. & EarleyR.W. (2013). “One welfare: a call to develop a broader framework of thought and action”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association242309310.

  • Companion Animals Act (NSW) (2017). Companion Animals Act 1998 No 87. NSW Government. Available from: https://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au.

  • CoppolaC.L.EnnsR.M. & GrandinT. (2006). “Noise in the animal shelter environment: building design and the effects of daily noise exposure”. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science917.

  • CraneM.F.Bayl-SmithP. & CartmillJ. (2013). “A recommendation for expanding the definition of moral distress experienced in the workplace”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Organisational Psychology619.

  • CraneM.F.PhillipsJ.K. & KarinE. (2015). “Trait perfectionism strengthens the negative effects of moral stressors occurring in veterinary practice”. Australian Veterinary Journal93354360.

  • DawsonB. & ThompsonN. (2017). “The effect of personality on occupational stress in veterinary surgeons”. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education44:17283.

  • DingmanP.A.LevyJ.K.RockeyL.E. & CrandallM.M. (2014). “Use of visual and permanent identification for pets by veterinary clinics”. The Veterinary Journal2014650.

  • DriverJ. (2014). “The history of utilitarianism”. In: E.N. Zalta (ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyWinter 2014 ed. Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.

  • DuvinE.S. (1989). “In the name of mercy”. Animalines4.

  • English Oxford Living Dictionaries (2017). Shelter. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com. Available online: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/shelter [Accessed October 24 2017].

  • Farm Animal Welfare Council (2009). Farm Animal Welfare in Great Britain: Past Present and Future. London: Department for Environment, Rural & Food Affairs.

  • FawcettA. (2013). “Euthanasia and morally justifiable killing in a veterinary clinical context”. In: J. Johnston & F. Probyn-Rapsey (eds) Animal Death. Sydney: Sydney University Press.

  • FraserD. (2012). “A “practical” ethic for animals”. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics25721746.

  • HartnackS.SpringerS.PittavinoM. & GrimmH. (2016). “Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia”. BMC Veterinary Research1226.

  • HawesS.KerriganJ. & MorrisK. (2018). “Factors informing outcomes for older cats and dogs in animal shelters”. Animals836.

  • HensK. (2009). “Ethical responsibilities towards dogs: an inquiry into the dog-human relationship”. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics22314.

  • Humane Society of the United States (2013). Euthanasia Reference Manual2nd ed. Human Society Veterinary Medical Association.

  • Humane Society of the United States (2016). Eliminating Gas Chambers. HSUS. Available online: https://www.animalsheltering.org/page/eliminating-gas-chambers [Accessed October 24 2017].

  • HurleyK.F. (2008). “Sick to death: the false tension between providing care and saving lives”. In: Animal Sheltering Humane Society of the United States. Animal Care Expo 2008 5159.

  • IslamM.M.MunH.-S.BostamiA.B.M.R.ParkK.-J. & YangC.-J. (2016). “Combined active solar and geothermal heating: a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source in pig houses”. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy3511561165.

  • KahlerS.C. (2015). “Moral stress the top trigger in veterinarians’ compassion fatigue”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association2461618.

  • KaiserA.M.McFarlandW.SiemionR.S. & RaisbeckM.F. (2010). “Secondary pentobarbital poisoning in two dogs: a cautionary tale”. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation22632634.

  • KarstenC.L.WagnerD.C.KassP.H. & HurleyK.F. (2017). “An observational study of the relationship between Capacity for Care as an animal shelter management model and cat health, adoption and death in three animal shelters”. The Veterinary Journal2271522.

  • KiddieJ. & CollinsL. (2015). “Identifying environmental and management factors that may be associated with the quality of life of kennelled dogs (Canis familiaris)”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science1674355.

  • LearyS.UnderwoodW.AnthonyR. & AlE. (2013). AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals2013 edition. American Veterinary Medical Association.

  • Maddie’s Fund (2018). Maddie’s Pet Assistant. Maddie’s Fund. Available online: http://www.maddiesfund.org/mpa.htm [Accessed April 25 2018].

  • McFarlandB. (2014). Animal Care Expo 2014 special session: Mythbusters—finding the perfect home. HSUS Animal Care Expo. Available online: www.animal sheltering.org [Accessed October 26 2017].

  • McGreevyP.StarlingM.PayneE. & BennettP. (in press). “Defining and measuring dogmanship: a new multidisciplinary science to improve understanding of human-dog interactions”. The Veterinary Journal.

  • MellorD.J. (2012). “Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states”. New Zealand Veterinary Journal6018.

  • MellorD.J. (2016). “Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” by updating the “Five Provisions” and introducing aligned “Animal Welfare Aims””. Animals: an Open Access Journal from MDPI659.

  • MillJ.S. (1865). On Liberty. London: Longmans, Green and Company.

  • MillerL. & ZawistowskiS. (2012). Shelter Medicine for Veterinarians and Staff. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

  • National Research Council (US) (2009). “Use of dogs and cats in research: public perception and evolution of laws and guidelines”. In: Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US).

  • NewburyS.BlinnM.K.BushbyP.A.Barker CoxC.DinnageJ.D.GriffinB.HurleyK.F.IsazaN.JonesW.MillerL.O’QuinJ.PatronekG.J.Smith- BlackmoreM. & SpindelM. (2010). Guidelines for Standards of Care in Animal Shelters. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians. Available from: www.sheltervet.org.

  • OIE (2017a). OIE Global Animal Welfare Strategy. Available online: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/home/eng/Media_Center/docs/pdf/85SG/AW/EN_OIE_AW_Strategy.pdf.

  • OIE (2017b). “Stray dog population control”. In: Terrestrial Animal Health Code. OIE, World Organisation for Animal Health.

  • Ortega-PachecoA. & Jiménez-CoelloM. (2011). “Debate for and against euthanasia in the control of dog populations”. In: J. Kuře (ed.) Euthanasia—The “Good Death” Controversy in Humans and Animals. Rijeka: InTech.

  • Page-JonesS. & AbbeyG. (2015). “Career identity in the veterinary profession”. Veterinary Record176433.

  • PalmerC.CorrS. & SandoeP. (2012). “Inconvenient desires: should we routinely neuter companion animals?Anthrozoos25S153S172.

  • PatronekG.J. & BradleyJ. (2016). “No better than flipping a coin: reconsidering canine behavior evaluations in animal shelters”. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research156677.

  • PesaventoP.A. & MurphyB.G. (2014). “Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter”. Veterinary Pathology51478491.

  • PierceJ. (2016a). “Rage against the dying”. In: J. Pierce (ed.) Run Spot Run: The Ethics of Keeping Pets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • PierceJ. (2016b). “The shelter industry”. In: J. Pierce (ed.) Run Spot Run: The Ethics of Keeping Pets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • PittmanA. (2016). Eco-friendly Animal Shelters. One Green Planet. Available online: www.onegreenplanet.org [Accessed October 21 2017].

  • RadfordA.D.CoyneK.P.DawsonS.PorterC.J. & GaskellR.M. (2007). “Feline calicivirus”. Veterinary Research38319335.

  • ReeveC.L.RogelbergS.G.SpitzmullerC. & DigiacomoN. (2005). “The caring-killing paradox: euthanasia-related strain among animal-shelter workers”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology35119143.

  • RogelbergS.G.ReeveC.L.SpitzmullerC.DigiacomoN.ClarkO.L.TeeterL.WalkerA.G.StarlingP.G. & CarterN.T. (2007). “Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association230713719.

  • RollinB.E. (2011). “Euthanasia, moral stress, and chronic illness in veterinary medicine”. Veterinary Clinics of North America-Small Animal Practice41651659.

  • RussellW.M.S. & BurchR.L. (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. London: Methuen.

  • Safe Work Australia (2014). Preventing psychological injury under work health and safety laws: fact sheetMay 2014 ed. Safe Work Australia. Available from: www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au.

  • Schorr-EvansE.M.PolandA.JohnsonW.E. & PedersenN.C. (2003). “An epizootic of highly virulent feline calicivirus disease in a hospital setting in New England”. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery5217226.

  • ScorneyR.L.McLaughlinD. & KeatesH.L. (2015). “A systematic review of the effects of euthanasia and occupational stress in personnel working with animals in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association24711211130.

  • Scott NolenR. (2013). Study shines spotlight on neutering: Assumptions about a mainstay of companion animal practice are called into question. Available online: https://www.avma.org/news/javmanews/pages/131101a.aspx [Accessed October 24 2017].

  • SerpellJ. (1996). In the Company of Animals: A Study of Human Animal Relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Shelter Animals Count (2018). Shelter Animals Count: The National Database. Shelter Animals Count. Available online: https://shelteranimalscount.org/ [Accessed April 25 2018].

  • SimmonsK. & HoffmanC. (2016). “Dogs on the move: factors impacting animal shelter and rescue organizations’ decisions to accept dogs from distant locations”. Animals611.

  • SpencerT.Behar-HorensteinL.AufmuthJ.HardtN.ApplebaumJ.EmanuelA. & IsazaN. (2017). “Factors that influence intake to one municipal animal control facility in Florida: a qualitative study”. Animals748.

  • StaviskyJ.BrennanM.L.DownesM. & DeanR. (2012). “Demographics and economic burden of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK: results of a 2010 census”. BMC Veterinary Research8163.

  • StephenJ.M. & LedgerR.A. (2005). “An audit of behavioral indicators of poor welfare in kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom”. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science87996.

  • TaskerL. (2009). Stray animal control practices (Europe). Food and Agriculture Organisation. Available from: www.fao.org.

  • TurnerP.BerryJ. & MacDonaldS. (2012). “Animal shelters and animal welfare: raising the bar”. The Canadian Veterinary Journal53893896.

  • Van MolM.M.C.KompanjeE.J.O.BenoitD.D.BakkerJ. & NijkampM.D. (2015). “The prevalence of compassion fatigue and burnout among healthcare professionals in intensive care units: a systematic review”. PLOS ONE10 e0136955.

  • WagnerD.C.KassP.H. & HurleyK.F. (2018). “Cage size, movement in and out of housing during daily care, and other environmental and population health risk factors for feline upper respiratory disease in nine North American animal shelters”. PLOS ONE13 e0190140.

  • WebsterA.J.F. (1994). Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

  • WeissE. & GramannS. (2009). “A comparison of attachment levels of adopters of cats: fee-based adoptions versus free adoptions”. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science12360370.

  • WeissE.GramannS.DolanE.ScottoJ. & SlaterM. (2014). “Do policy based adoptions increase the care a pet receives? An exploration of a shift to conversation based adoptions at one shelter”. Open Journal of Animal Sciences4313322.

  • WeissE.PatronekG.SlaterM.GarrisonL. & MedicusK. (2013). “Community partnering as a tool for improving live release rate in animal shelters in the United States”. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science16221238.

  • World Society for the Protection of Animals (2008). Methods for the euthanasia of dogs and cats: comparison and recommendations. World Society for the Protection of Animals. Available from: www.icam-coalition.org.

  • YeatesJ.W. (2010). “Death is a welfare issue”. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics23229241.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Providers of low or no-cost educational resources for shelters and animal welfare organisations
  • View in gallery
    Outcomes of animals admitted to shelters, animal welfare organisations and/or municipal pounds in the US, UK and Australia
  • View in gallery
    Potential environmental impacts of shelters and possible solutions
  • View in gallery
    Minimising harms and maximising benefits approaches to animal shelters

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 411 411 53
Full Text Views 63 63 1
PDF Downloads 11 11 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0