This paper examines strategies for peaceful coexistence in the African countries, more effective participation of the African economies in the global economy, and sustainable economic growth and development in the new century and beyond. Three strategies are recommended: development in each country of an efficient and self-enforcing constitution; constitutional guarantee of economic freedoms, including the right of individuals to freely engage in exchange and contract; and a change in present trading patterns. Presently, most African countries export raw materials, forest products, minerals, and goods produced with cheap, unskilled and primarily uneducated labor. The paper recommends that African countries move away from specialization in the export of primary commodities towards specialization in the production of knowledge intensive goods using skilled and educated labor services. National policies in these countries should be directed at providing facilities for citizens to acquire the specialized skills and knowledge needed to help these countries switch to knowledge intensive industries.