Postwar Development of Hokkaido

The U.S. Occupation Authorities’ Local Government Reform in Japan

in Journal of American-East Asian Relations
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The near revolutionary reforms that U.S. occupiers enforced in Japan between 1945 and 1952 altered the characteristics of the Hokkaido development system, but did not make it correspond to the administrative system in the rest of Japan. Although the establishment of the postwar Hokkaido development system was a subplot of the nationwide local government reform from the perspective of the U.S. occupation authorities, this process can be explained only when one understands the changes to the general occupation policy and the actions of the occupiers. While the Hokkaido electorate chose a socialist governor, by the end of U.S. occupation, the decision-making power drifted toward Japan’s conservative central government. While the occupation authorities originally prohibited creation of the Hokkaido Development Agency in 1947, they lifted that ban three years later and even reluctantly approved the establishment of the Hokkaido Development Bureau in 1951, although General Headquarters/Supreme Commander of Allied Powers (ghq/scap) discouraged such a move throughout the occupation. This article argues that the outcome was a compromise that failed to match anyone’s concept of an ideal situation.

Postwar Development of Hokkaido

The U.S. Occupation Authorities’ Local Government Reform in Japan

in Journal of American-East Asian Relations

References

  • 3

    SteinerLocal Government in Japan p. 64.

  • 5

    SteinerLocal Government in Japan p. 45; Banno Hokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 30–31; Ann B. Irish Hokkaido: A History of Ethnic Transition and Development on Japan’s Northern Island (Jefferson nc: McFarland 2009) 217.

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  • 6

    SteinerLocal Government in Japan pp. 69 71 80–83; Amakawa “The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” pp. 257–60; Takemae The Allied Occupation of Japan p. 302.

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  • 7

    SteinerLocal Government in Japan78–80; Amakawa “The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” 260–62. See also Milton J. Esman 15 June 1946 gs(A)00037 ghq [General Headquarters] scap [Supreme Commander of Allied Powers] gs [Government Section] National Diet Library [ndl] Tokyo.

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  • 10

    Amakawa“The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” pp. 262–64.

  • 11

    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 31–32.

  • 12

    Amakawa“The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” p. 264.

  • 13

    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 31–33; Koiso and Yamazaki Sengo Hokkaidō Kaihatsu no Kiseki pp. 28 95.

  • 14

    Amakawa“The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” p. 264.

  • 16

    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 33–34 43–44; Koiso and Yamazaki Sengo Hokkaidō Kaihatsu no Kiseki pp. 26–27 90–91.

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  • 17

    Amakawa“The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” p. 265.

  • 18

    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika p. 37.

  • 19

    Ibid. pp. 38–41.

  • 23

    SteinerLocal Government in Japan pp. 71–75; Takemae The Allied Occupation of Japan pp. 296 304.

  • 24

    Amakawa“The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” p. 266.

  • 25

    Ibid. pp. 266–269.

  • 34

    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika p. 138; Koiso and Yamazaki Sengo Hokkaidō Kaihatsu no Kiseki p. 93.

  • 35

    Amakawa“The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” pp. 270–72.

  • 36

    Richard B. FinnWinners in Peace: MacArthur Yoshida and Postwar Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press1992) 195–204.

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  • 37

    TakemaeThe Allied Occupation of Japan pp. 143 173; John W. Dower Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (New York: W.W. Norton 2000) 540–41.

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  • 39

    Ibid. pp. 358–60; Takemae The Allied Occupation of Japan p. 303.

  • 40

    TakahashiShōgen pp. 222 224–25; Banno Hokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 148–52.

  • 41

    TakahashiShōgen pp. 222–23; Banno Hokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 156–60 161–65; Koiso and Yamazaki Sengo Hokkaidō Kaihatsu no Kiseki pp. 95 97.

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  • 47

    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 161–65.

  • 51

    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 175 177.

  • 53

    Amakawa“The Making of the Postwar Local Government System” p. 276; Takemae The Allied Occupation of Japan pp. 491–93.

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    BannoHokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 211–21 223 241.

  • 62

    SteinerLocal Government in Japan pp. 131–32.

  • 63

    Justin Williams Sr.Japan’s Political Revolution under MacArthur: A Participant’s Account (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press1979) 22; Masumi Junnosuke Postwar Politics in Japan 1945–1955 Japan Research Monograph 6 Institute of East Asian Studies (Berkely ca: University of California Berkeley Center for Japanese Studies 1985) 76–77; Michael Schaller The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in Asia (New York: Oxford University Press 1985) 63.

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  • 64

    SteinerLocal Government in Japan p. 67; Dower Empire and Aftermath p. 357.

  • 65

    Memorandum for Record 3 July 1946ghqscapnrs Folder 18 Entry 1812 box 8781 rg 331 naii; Report on Field Trip with Hokkaido Coal Team 5 January 1948 20ghqscapess Labor Division Folder 20 Entry 1469 box 2616 ibid.; Report Number 99 Ishikari Coal Field Hokkaido 28 November 1947 ghqscapnrs 02166–nrs 02117 ndl. See also Takahashi Shōgen pp. 166–71.

  • 66

    Koiso and YamazakiSengo Hokkaidō Kaihatsu no Kiseki pp. 10–12 36.

  • 67

    Ibid. pp. 13 30; IrishHokkaido pp. 261–62.

  • 71

    TakahashiShōgen pp. 234–35; Banno Hokkaidō Kaihatsu Kyoku to ha Nanika pp. 167–170.

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