At some moment in time, the patronate system that had been introduced as a way to incorporate non-Arab Muslims into Arab society, allowed the client of a patron to have clients of his own. Using this phenomenon of mawālī of mawālī as focal point, this article pinpoints when changes in the patronate system occurred and sketches the process of islamization of society during the first four centuries of Islam.
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Ibn al-ʿImādʿAbd al-Qādir al-ArnāʾūṭMaḥmūd al-ArnāʾūṭShadharāt al-dhahab fī akhbār man dhahab1986-1995BeirutDār al-Āfāq al-Jadīda8 vols.n.d.; ed. by ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Arnāʾūṭ and Maḥmūd al-Arnāʾūṭ 11 vols.
Damascus and Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr
NawasJohn A.GüntherSebastianThe Contribution of the Mawālī to the Six Sunnite Canonical Ḥadīth CollectionsIdeas Images and Methods of Portrayal: Insights into Classical Arabic Literature and Islam2005LeidenBrill141151
NawasJohn A.BernardsMoniqueVermeulenU.Van ReethJ. M. F.A Preliminary Report of the Netherlands Ulama Project (nup): The Evolution of the Class of ʿulamā’ in Islam with Special Emphasis on the Non-Arab Converts (Mawālī) from the First through Fourth Century a.h.Law Christianity and Modernism in Islamic Society: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Congress of the Union Européenne Des Arabisants Et Islamisants1998LeuvenPeeters97107