A Client’s Client: The Process of Islamization in Early and Classical Islam

in Journal of Abbasid Studies
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

At some moment in time, the patronate system that had been introduced as a way to incorporate non-Arab Muslims into Arab society, allowed the client of a patron to have clients of his own. Using this phenomenon of mawālī of mawālī as focal point, this article pinpoints when changes in the patronate system occurred and sketches the process of islamization of society during the first four centuries of Islam.

A Client’s Client: The Process of Islamization in Early and Classical Islam

in Journal of Abbasid Studies

Sections

References

Al Bukhārī Kitāb al Ta⁠ʾrīkh al kabīr 1941 5 Hyderabad Maṭbaʿat Dāʾirat al Maʿārif al Niẓāmiyya 9 vols. repr. Hyderabad: Maṭbaʿat Dāʾirat al Maʿārif al ʿUthmāniyya 1377/1958; repr. Beirut: Dār al Kutub al ʿIlmiyya n.d.

Al-DhahabīShams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿUthmān Shuʿayb al- Arnaʿūṭ Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ 1993 Beirut Muʾassasat al-Risāla 25 vols.

Al-DhahabīShams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿUthmān ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-Salām Tadmurī Ta⁠ʾrīkh al-Islām wa-ṭabaqāt al-mashāhīr wa-l-aʿlām 1989-2000 Beirut Dār al-Kutub al-ʿArabī 52 vols.

Ibn Abī Ḥātim al Jarḥ wa l taʿdīl 1360/1941 1371/1952 Hyderabad Jamʿiyyat Dāʾirat al Maʿārif al ʿUthmāniyya 9 vols. repr. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al Turāth al ʿArabī n.d.

Ibn Abī YaʿlāAbū l-Ḥusayn M. al-Faqī Ṭabaqāt al-Ḥanābila Cairo Maṭbaʿat al-Sunna al-Muḥammadiyya 2 vols. (+ 2 vols. dhayl) n.d.

Ibn ʿAsākir ʿUmar b. Gharāma al-ʿAmrawī Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq 1995-2000 Beirut 80 vols.

Ibn Ḥajar Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī Kitāb Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb 1984 Beirut Dār al-Fikr 14 vols.

Ibn Ḥajar Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba 1992 Beirut Dār al-Jīl 8 vols.

Ibn Ḥibbān Muḥammad b. Ḥibbān b. Aḥmad Abī Ḥātim Kitāb al-Thiqāt 1973 Hyderabad 10 vols.

Ibn Ḥibbān Muḥammad b. Ḥibbān b. Aḥmad Abī Ḥātim FleischhammerManfred Mashāhīr ʿulamāʾ al amṣār 1959 Wiesbaden Franz Steiner [Bibliotheca Islamica 22]

Ibn Ḥibbān Muḥammad b. Ḥibbān b. Aḥmad Abī Ḥātim Maḥmūd Ibrāhīm Zāyid Kitab al-Majrūḥīn min al-muḥaddithīn wa-l-ḍuʿafāʾ wa-l-matrūkīn Mecca Dār al-Bāz 3 vols. n.d.

Ibn al-ʿImād ʿAbd al-Qādir al-ArnāʾūṭMaḥmūd al-Arnāʾūṭ Shadharāt al-dhahab fī akhbār man dhahab 1986-1995 Beirut Dār al-Āfāq al-Jadīda 8 vols. n.d.; ed. by ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Arnāʾūṭ and Maḥmūd al-Arnāʾūṭ 11 vols. Damascus and Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr

Ibn Khallikān Iḥsān ʿAbbās Wafayāt al-aʿyān Beirut 8 vols. n.d.

Ibn Qutayba Tharwat al-ʿUkkāsha al-Maʿārif 1992 Cairo

Ibn Saʿd Iḥsān ʿAbbās Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā Beirut 9 vols. n.d.

Al-ʿIjlīAbū l-Ḥasan Aḥmad b. ʿAbdallāh b. Ṣāliḥ ʿAbd al-Muʿtā Qalʿajī Tārīkh al-thiqāt 1984 Beirut Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya

Al-JaʿdīʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. Samura Fūʾād Sayyid Fuqahāʾ Yaman 1981 Beirut Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya

Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ Akram Ḍiyāʾ al-ʿUmarī Ṭabaqāt 1966 Baghdad

Al-MizzīJamāl al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥajjāj Yūsuf Bashshār ʿAwwād Maʿrūf Tahdhīb al-kamāl fī asmāʾ al-rijāl 1993 Beirut Muʾassasat al-Risāla 35 vols.

Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ Aḥmad Bukayr Maḥmūd Tartīb al-madārik wa-taqrīb al-masālik li-maʿrifat aʿlām madhhab Mālik Beirut Dār Maktabat al-Ḥayāʾ 3 vols. n.d.

Al-Subkī Maḥmūd Muḥammad al-ṬanāḥīʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Muḥammad al-Ḥilw Ṭabaqāt al-shāfiʿiyya al-kubrā Cairo Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya 10 vols. n.d.

Al-BadrāwīRiyāḍ ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn Al-Mawqif al-umawī min al-mawālī: Bayn al-shubahāt wa-l-wāqiʿ al-tārīkhī 2011 Damascus Tammūz li-l-Ṭibāʿa wa-l-Nashr wa-l-Tawzīʿ

BernardsMoniqueNawasJohn The Geographic Distribution of Muslim Jurists during the First Four Centuries a.h. Islamic Law and Society 2003 10 2 168 181

BernardsMoniqueNawasJohn Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam 2005 Leiden Brill

Bi-l-nūr Īmān ʿAlī Dawr al-mawālī fī suqūṭ al-dawla al-umawiyya (41-132 AH/661-750 AD) 2008 Benghazi, Libya Dār al-Kutub al-Waṭaniyya

BlalockHubert M. Social Statistics. Second Edition 1972 New York McGraw-Hill

BullietRichard W. Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period: An Essay in Quantitative History 1979 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press

BullietRichard W. BernardsMoniqueNawasJohn Conversion-Based Patronage and Onomastic Evidence in Early Islam Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam 2005 Leiden Brill 246 262

CronePatricia BernardsMoniqueNawasJohn Mawālī and the Prophet’s Family: An Early Shīʿite View Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam 2005 Leiden Brill 167 194

CronePatricia Mawlā Encyclopaedia of Islam Second Edition 1954-2005 Leiden Brill 874 882 13 vols.

CronePatricia Roman Provincial and Islamic Law: The Origins of the Islamic Patronate 1987 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

CronePatricia Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity 1980 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

GilbertJ. Institutionalization of Muslim Scholarship and the Professionalization of the Ulama in Medieval Damascus Studia Islamica 1980 52 105 135

HumphreysR. Stephen Islamic History. A Framework for Inquiry 1991 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press

JudaJamal Die sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Aspekte der Mawālī in frühislamischer Zeit 1983 PhD, Tübingen Arabic transl. al-Awḍāʿ al-ijtimāʿiyya wa-l-iqtiṣādiyya li-l-mawālī fī ṣadr al-islām 1989

JudaJamal BernardsMoniqueNawasJohn The Economic Status of the Mawālī Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam 2005 Leiden Brill 263 277

MakdisiGeorge The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West 1981 Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press

MitterUlrike Das frühislamische Patronat. Eine Untersuchung zur Rolle von fremden Elementen bei der Entwicklung des islamischen Rechts 1999 PhD, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen

NawasJohn A. The Birth of an Elite: Mawālī and Arab Ulama Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 2006 31 74 91

NawasJohn A. GüntherSebastian The Contribution of the Mawālī to the Six Sunnite Canonical Ḥadīth Collections Ideas Images and Methods of Portrayal: Insights into Classical Arabic Literature and Islam 2005 Leiden Brill 141 151

NawasJohn A. The Development of the Islamic Religious Sciences in Early and Classical Islam: A Comparative Approach al-Masāq 1999 11 159 169

NawasJohn A. How Sunnism Came to Be: The Appellation Ṣāḥib Sunna in Classical Islam forthcoming

NawasJohn A.BernardsMonique VermeulenU.Van ReethJ. M. F. A Preliminary Report of the Netherlands Ulama Project (nup): The Evolution of the Class of ʿulamā’ in Islam with Special Emphasis on the Non-Arab Converts (Mawālī) from the First through Fourth Century a.h. Law Christianity and Modernism in Islamic Society: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Congress of the Union Européenne Des Arabisants Et Islamisants 1998 Leuven Peeters 97 107

5

CroneSlaves on Horses49-51.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Percentage Distribution of Ethnicity across the First Four Islamic Centuries (N = 1,049).
  • View in gallery
    Lifespan (Birth and Death Years) of Mawālī of Mawālī across the First Four Islamic Centuries.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 25 25 9
Full Text Views 8 8 8
PDF Downloads 3 3 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0