Chinese Imperialism, Ethnic Cleansing, and Military History, 1850-1877

in Journal of Chinese Military History
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In the past two decades historical research and theoretical refinements have provided military historians with new insights into “Chinese imperialism,” late Qing warfare, and ethnic cleansing during the 1850-1877 campaigns in Northwest China, Central Asia, Yunnan, and Guizhou. In particular, Robert Jenks’ Insurgency and Social Disorder in Guizhou: The Miao Rebellion, 1854-1873, David Atwill’s The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856-1873, and Hodong Kim’s Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877 have stressed the commonality of Chinese practices with other colonial and imperial states. These authors share a common conclusion that the Qing re-conquest resulted in widespread massacres, ethnic relocations, and subsequent immigration of Han settlers into each region. This historiography examines recent works on the military aspects of the 1850-1877 conflicts in these ethnic and territorial “frontiers” and highlights opportunities for historians to take advantage of new theoretical and archival resources.

Chinese Imperialism, Ethnic Cleansing, and Military History, 1850-1877

in Journal of Chinese Military History

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References

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1

Jenks 1994.

2

Atwill 2005.

3

Kim 2004.

4

Kessler 1969.

5

Atwill 2005185-86; Ma 1989 2-4; Jenks 1994 164; Gillette 2008 1011; Dillon 1999 60; Chang 1987 66-67; Broomhall 1910 162; Lu 2003 71; Hou 1997 68.

8

Wiens 1954.

9

Perdue 2005; Teng 2004; Giersch 2006.

10

Herman 2007236.

11

Proschan 2001.

12

Bulag 2006 and 2008.

13

Elliott 1990.

15

Chatterjee 1993.

16

Gladney 1991; Lipman 1997; Dillon 1999.

17

Cohen 1997.

18

Worthing 2007.

19

Elleman 2001.

20

Duara 1995.

21

Giersch 2006.

22

Daniels 1994.

23

Atwill 2003.

24

Atwill 2005146.

25

Evans 1985.

26

Herman 2007.

27

Weinstein 2014.

28

Sutton 2003a and 2003b.

29

Rack 2005.

30

Jenks 1994154-55.

31

Jenks 1994164.

33

Perdue 2005especially 280-89.

34

Lu 200371.

35

Chu 1966.

36

Shao and Han 1992.

37

Gao 1988.

38

Bales 1937.

39

Fields 1978.

40

Rowe 2007191-218.

41

Meyer-Fong 2013.

42

Spector 1964.

43

Smith 1974; Kuhn 1967; Michael 1949.

44

McCord 1993.

45

Perry 1980146.

46

Teng 1961.

47

Chiang 1954.

48

Zhu 1968a1968b 1968c and 1968d.

52

Cunningham 2014.

53

Bartlett 2011.

55

Snyder 2010.

56

Rutherford 2014.

57

Müller 2012.

58

Shoup 20082.

59

Fujii 2012.

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