Save

Dialogues on the Theory of Reward for the Good and Retribution for the Evil during Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties

中文题目:明末清初中西有关善恶报应的对话

In: Journal of Chinese Theology
Author:
肖 清和 Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Peking University (北京大学哲学系、宗教学系) Haidian, Beijing (北京海淀), 100871 PRC

Search for other papers by 肖 清和 in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0009-0005-2395-0361
Download Citation Get Permissions

Access options

Get access to the full article by using one of the access options below.

Institutional Login

Log in with Open Athens, Shibboleth, or your institutional credentials

Login via Institution

Purchase

Buy instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

$40.00

Abstract

The theory of reward for the good and retribution for the evil (善恶报应) was one of the key issues in the dialogue between Catholicism and indigenous religions in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. Under the monotheistic framework, Catholicism advocates a supernatural God for rewarding good and punishing evil. It thus had a more logical and rigorous theological argumentation at its disposal in its exchanges and dialogues with Chinese native religions on the standards of good and evil, the question of who has the right to reward and punish, the consequences of reward and retribution, and so on. This article begins by analyzing the Confucian theory of stimulus-response between the heaven and human beings (天人感应). Secondly, it sketches the views expressed by the theories of reward for the good and retribution for the evil in Buddhism and Taoism. Then, it discusses the Catholic views on rewarding good and punishing evil during late Ming and early Qing, and also examines the responses of the native religions of China to the Catholic views on rewarding good and punishing evil. Finally, it summarizes the similarities and differences of the theories of reward for the good and retribution for the evil between Catholicism and Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. As for the intention to do good, there were some commonalities between Catholicism and Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in the movement to promote good deeds during late Ming and early Qing. However, they were distinct in the perspective of the standards of good and evil, the subjects of retribution, and the roles of individuals in retribution, which caused the conflicts between Catholicism and its opponents in China. The introduction of the Catholic theory of reward for the good and retribution for the evil has undoubtedly further enriched Chinese religious thoughts since the late Ming dynasty.

提要

善恶报应是明末清初天主教与本土宗教对话的关键问题之一。在一神教的框架下,天主教主张超自然的上帝赏善罚恶,因此其神学论证更具逻辑性和严密性。天主教与中国本土宗教就善恶的标准、谁有赏罚权、赏罚的结果等问题进行了交流和对话。本文首先分析了儒家的天人感应理论。其次阐述了佛教和道教的善有善报、恶有恶报理论。然后论述了明末清初天主教的赏善罚恶观,并分析了中国本土宗教对天主教赏善罚恶观的回应。最后,文章总结了天主教与儒、释、道三教在赏善罚恶理论上的异同。在有意行善方面,天主教与儒、释、道三教在明末清初的劝善运动中存在一些共性。但在善恶标准、报应主体、个人在报应中的作用等方面的观点不同,造成了天主教在中国与反对者之间的差异与冲突。天主教善恶报应论的传入,无疑进一步丰富了晚明以来的中国宗教思想。

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 48 48 22
Full Text Views 6 6 2
PDF Views & Downloads 14 14 4