The persistence of the Leninist model in China is best explained by historical and cultural fears. These are the fears of anarchy, the experience of victimization, and the fear of political involvement. Despite progress made on several fronts, the prospects for improving governance are constrained by the Leninist model. It remains to be seen whether governance adaptations required to accommodate economic growth and globalization will eventually cause regime collapse, the rise of a praetorian state, or a gradual transition to pluralism. For the near and mid-term future, it seems that the communist party will be able to maintain its control while the quality of life for most Chinese continues to improve.