John SmolenskiFriends and Strangers: The Making of a Creole Culture in Colonial Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press2010) 119–121 189–193; John Smolenski “From Men of Property to Just Men: Deference Masculinity and the Evolution of Political Discourse in Early America” Early American Studies 3 no. 2 (Fall 2005): 253–285 at 274–280; Jessica Choppin Roney “‘Effective Men’ and Early Voluntary Associations in Philadelphia 1725–1775” in New Men: Manliness in Early America ed. Thomas A. Foster (New York: New York University Press 2011) 155–171; Jessica Choppin Roney Governed by a Spirit of Opposition: The Origins of American Political Practice in Colonial Philadelphia (Baltimore Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press 2014) 85–91.
James O’Neil Spady“Colonialism and the Discursive Antecedents of Penn’s Treaty with the Indians,” in Friends and Enemies in Penn’s Woods: Colonists Indians and the Racial Construction of Pennsylvaniain ed. William Pencak and Daniel K. Richter (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press2004) 18–40; William J. Campbell “George Croghan and the Frontiers of Empire” in ed. Darren Reid The Making of the Trans-Appalachian West: Society Cultures and Peoples 1754–1832 (Jefferson N.C.: McFarland Publishing 2016) forthcoming.
Quotation in Patrick GriffinThe People with No Name: Ireland’s Ulster Scots America’s Scots Irish and the Creation of a British Atlantic World 1689–1764 (Princeton: Princeton University Press2001) 110. For general rates of interpersonal violence see Thomas P. Slaughter “Interpersonal Violence in a Rural Setting: Lancaster County in the Eighteenth Century” Pennsylvania History 58 no. 2 (April 1991): 98–123.
On the 1720s and1720ssee Thomas P. Slaughter “Crowds in Eighteenth-Century America: Reflections and New Directions” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 115 no. 1 (January 1991): 3–34 at 15–17; Patrick Spero “The Conojocular War: The Politics of Colonial Competition 1732–1737” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 136 no. 4 (October 2012): 365–403. The literature on Paxton is copious but among the works that touch on questions of interracial conflict and the rejection of colonial authority see Brooke Hindle “The March of the Paxton Boys” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 3 no. 4 (October 1946): 462–486; Merritt At the Crossroads 280–295; Kevin Kenny Peaceable Kingdom Lost: The Paxton Boys and the Destruction of William Penn’s Holy Experiment (New York: Oxford University Press 2009); John Smolenski “Murder on the Margins: The Paxton Massacre and the Remaking of Sovereignty in Colonial Pennsylvania” Journal of Early Modern History 19 no. 6 (November 2015): 513–538.
GriffinAmerican Leviathan46–94; also see Daniel P. Barr “Did Pennsylvania Have a Middle Ground? Examining Indian-White Relations on the Eighteenth- Century Pennsylvania Frontier” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 136 no. 4 (October 2012): 337–363.